Climate change: Europe’s melting glaciers | DW Documentary

Comments 100

  • Nobody wants the party to be over, sums it up

  • Politicians can control the climate … right?

  • When they start to quote "Scientists" and "Experts" you know it is fake news…humanity has always prospered during warm climate spells, the glaciers have been retreating around the world since the end of the last ice age roughly 12000 years ago.

  • It's strange that currently there are 12 desalination plants are in the world and 5 of them are in Israel! Reduce armaments and re-channel the military funding into space programs. The true definition of inflation is depletion of natural resources; specially, in the presence of over population. Humans need/will (eventually) colonize the other planets.

  • I don't think this is about man-made climate change but earth-made climate change. There are now more desert than there was was before. Areas that were green thousands of years ago have turned to desert. The climate has been turning into a big desert before the invention of the car.

  • The climate warms and cools…humans have virtually no control over these processes. See; Piers Corbyn.

  • While all of this is happening, there are too many people still unaware and unconvinced, and even some who almost seem like they are deliberately doing the opposite of what action is needed to reinforce the denial. It is getting harder to be optimistic when people are still having petty quarrels over things like racial and cultural differences, and demagogues are allowed to continue to lie to their citizens.

  • very interesting documentary, sanks for sharing this.

  • Stop watching u tube. I was lost in the bush for three days last week and it was cold,wet and there was way to many trees.

  • its a real shame that NATURAL climate change is melting the alps, if it really is ~

  • man effects Earth as much as the ant nest you don't know exists at the end of your garden

  • If it's not Climate Change it's some asteroid going to decimate mammalian life but it's all a scam. When global warming didn't happen they decided to call it climate change. Now it's 'official name is Climate Crisis. Government-funded scientists don't get their funding unless their findings are politically correct. Universities are in on the act too except that they are too stupid to keep their real findings out of the news. It's just so annoying that sea levels just refuse to rise

  • A large part of the climate change denial problem is the hyperbole around climate change claims. The Guardian, a staunch believer has even written articles over the years about the doomsday scenarios that didn't come true and blamed them as a reason why many people don't believe. The claim that we would run out of oil. One week it was claimed that Yorkshire would be covered in snow because we had a snowy week and then a week later they said it was going to be hot because the snowy week was followed by a a warm week (neither broke any records) .

    The haste of blaming everything on climate change as if these events didn't happen before do not do climate change activism any good.

    If people want climate denial reduced, you have to question why people don't believe rather than talking shit about them or to them. No one gains support if you are hostile towards them. The number 1 reason i can sum up that i have came across with those who don't believe can be put in to one sentence. Scientists/Media/Activists keep setting dates of crisis but when nothing has happened, like the second coming that never happens, they move the date further in to the future.

    If you want to convince more people, you have to cut out the contradictions.

  • Chicken little, the sky is falling. Humanity has dealt with and overcome nature's adversity for eons. And will adapt and overcome again.

  • Geoengineeringwatch⌛org

  • The emphasis in the world is still on growth, on expansion. Whole economic systems are based upon growth and access to ever-greater amounts of resources. This cannot continue. That is why the change at hand is so monumental, so fundamental and far-reaching.
    Humanity will have to enter a different kind of paradigm, a different kind of emphasis overall that will have to be on stability and security, for you have reached the limits of what growth can produce. Excerpt from the book The New World by Marshall Vian Summers

  • Don't believe this nonsense … There have always been landslides in the Alps. if the glaciers are melting in one area, they are getting bigger in others. This whole climate change thing IS A HOAX. SCARE THE PEOPLE … socialism in action. It's just another way to get your money

  • I can see you have been cherry picking the comments … just the nutbars left to comment.

  • DW bashing the climate change drum again. Ha ha ha.

  • The dessertfication of Europe . Pretty much sums it up. Water acquisition and purification will become critical but it will be too late.

  • Do not become addicted to water! you'll miss it's absence.

  • Man made climate change is a hoax of epic proportions😴😴😴😴

  • Currently it's political suicide for any politician to bring the topic up but eventually population control will become required. There is no chance of actual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with the rampant corruption involved with the recycling industry and corporate greed in big oil production. Once the tundra in northern Canada and Russia starts releasing it's stored methane things will go from bad to worse very quickly. I also find it amazing that large scale construction of cisterns to store meltwater hasn't yet begun.

  • You're helicoptering water in to quench the cattle? Yeah ok, you can keep doing that, but at what cost? 1,300 euros every four to five days? Time to go vegan.

  • Build stupas like in Ladakh India.

  • Don't have children, unless your Okay with watching them starve….Quit destroying these mountains, if you can go there and not leave a trace, that's one thing, snow machines, are another, altogether, just adding to the speed of the destruction….

  • *Permamelt

  • What happens in the Alps, doesn't stay in the Alps!

  • Human civilization is not surviving the 21th century, as we are losing important global climate regulators as the arctic ocean ice and the Amazon forest. The media in general will not describe the whole picture in these terms, focusing instead on isolated, sensationalistic, aspects of what is happening without compromising themselves too much.

    The fact is humanity is faceing near term extinction, because of loss of habitat, the inability to produce grains at large scale, from abrupt irreversible climate change. Species are being lost at an accelerating rate (google The 6th mass extinction), and we depend on thousands of species to survive.

    This is not pessimism, it is our predicament.

    Youtube Guy McPherson & Paul Beckwith.

  • It's Pole Shift and Grand Solar Minimum not "Global Warming"
    Look it up, Adapt 2030 and Suspicious Observers are a good starting point

  • Adapt they say. There is money invested…..

  • I dont know what everyone is worried about we humans have thousands of nuckes..

  • 8 billion chattering locusts turning the planet into a human sewage dump.

  • Making predictions on 100 years of data on a billions year old planet where even things 1000 years ago are buried under feet of soil. Such is man, if we didn’t have strife we couldn’t feel good because then we would have to think about what we are and what this means.

  • Well, Earth started to fight back, and we know who will win at the end.

  • You want to really respect the Alpine glaciers?… Stay the fuck out of them, you selfish tools.

  • You are a bunch of liars. Trying to make out like the world is ending or something. Nobody is believing your hype. OKay? You remove videos off YouTube that suit you and don't talk about 'climate change.' Stop it.

  • Thanks for the fascinating in depth studies that are done by all types of experts . The Climate Change that all the world is talking and blaming. The impure air caused by never ending emissions of hot air which is boiling the atmosphere all over world and brought by wind to unknown places . Melting, burning everything done and ruining the seasons. Why cant the respective governments tackle these cursed emissions. Thanks so much for this fascinating and lovely documentary. DW Team.

  • Glad to know the new generations are more aware of global warming and climate change, and the mistakes made by the previous generations.

    Cultures and societies will be forced to change when the environment and ecosystems affects them directly with their health and even quality of life and becomes really uncomfortable.

    Also I'm glad that there are more people interested to study in the STEM area because of climate change and global warming.
    In order to develop technologies and methods to reverse the effect or at least diminish the direct damage in the environment directly or indirectly.

  • We are all in deep shit!

  • But still, Germany is closing their nuclear energy plants and increasing their demand on coal.

  • APTTMH……..

  • no glacier no water run off no electrical power. therefore burn more coal

  • It's Trump's fault.

  • Thanks for this crucially important video. Climate impacts every facet of our daily life. Although Climate Change (sometimes called “global warming”) still has its ever shrinking group of naysayers, even the major fossil fuel companies have admitted that mankind has and continues to impact the earth's climate in negative ways, including through the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. It is beyond reproach that the Earth’s climate is changing in ways that will undoubtedly present negative impacts that will be bourne on some level by every person and business. Many of the scientific models present catastrophic damage scenarios occurring relatively soon – within the lifespan of our children.

    The monetary cost of climate change – be it for adaptive actions or failure to adapt, will be enormous, eclipsing the GDP of many developed countries for decades to come. Injury and damage to persons, property, businesses, governments, ecosystems and natural resources, to name but a few, are unfortunately unavoidable at some level. For those interested in a comprehensive overview of Climate Change, including the science, data trends, damages, domestic and international
    legislative initiatives, financial implications and mitigative measures, I encourage you to read my recent White Paper which you may access through the below link. Thanks:

  • Mir deucht I have already seen that auf Deutsch.

  • The sooner they melt the better. . What the next load of shite they will moan. About. I know they will talk about the scientist. Being out of work the load of gob shites.

  • also in force when it comes to global warming

  • Trump wants to buy Greenland… making it a future resort for the super wealthy…?

  • The root of climate change is that humans do not belong in cold climates of the planet like europe or america. Humans are originally a tropical animal. We don't have fur to live in cold climates. To live in cold climates humans need some artificial help, like fire, thick clothes and animal meat as food. Fruits and vegetables do live live in cold climates. These 3 problems are mainly what created the global warming to begin with.

  • Mother nature is taking back her planet since its obvious that the inhabitants dont give a damn about it….

  • If we're going to take global warming serious someone has to have to courage to address geoengineering – weather control – which is very real. Talk to the folks live near the amazon jungle and California and ask them why everything is burning around them.. Spraying toxic particles in the air to block the sun, I'm not making this up either. Go to harvard website… or do nothing

  • At 15:53, well there is somethings more important in life then just partying all the time. Folks need to wake up and take this stuff serious. Most folks could care less, as long as they have everything they need, new Iphone, latest clothes , cable TV, nothing else matters…

  • Once man is removed from the earth it will recover …..

  • Whats occured in the past 10,000 years man has managed to destroy it all in the past 100yrs

  • @31:26 scientist say nomore glaciers in 90yrs, really gentlemen pls be realistic and report the correct figures, maybe more like 30yrs, stop sugar coating the data esp for the naysayers bout global warming

  • Dear Dear Eartha, Im leaving you for Marsha. She is cold, distant, and mysterious but she can change. Just know its not you its me. Sincerely Mankind

  • Too many ski resorts.. winter sports gotta slowdown. Mountains also need rest.

  • Only Sheeps believe in global warming!

  • Start reforestation

  • If you believe this then your as DUMB as the maker…The alps had record breaking snow in area's, So 1 study during the melt season is not going to tell you much…If you go and search for data regarding all the issues mentioned you can see there is no loss or gain it's been stable for generation's..If you look back far enough time you will notice we have had many high points and many low between those periods the world changed to balance it's gravity stability….This moves mountains..Mountains rise and fall…This is how stupid we all are… we don't even see it…oh it's global warming/Climate change.

  • Why do I see so many stupid flying tourists coming to look at the destruction they cause…. sadly ignorant senseless people

  • Awwww the houses go bye bye, boo hoo …. but gotta go to the store in my big SUV and get fossil burning fuels for my tractor's. Have a nice day

  • Oh, what a shame . . . . Too many silly ads. Won’t watch 🤷🏻‍♀️ 🙄

  • The earth will be just fine, after we're gone. We're just another dead-end experiment by Mother Nature.

  • Just think, when the glaciers are gone there will be room for even more people.

  • Ice ALWAYS melts above 32 degrees. No surprise. What's changed is the SNOW DROUGHT, not 'warming'. It always gets warm in Summer. BTW the 'climate' has ALWAYS changed and is ALWAYS in a continuous state of change. WHY are you people WORRYING about trying to STOP NATURE from happening?
    "The melting of the glacier is irreversible." What a contemptibly stupid statement.

  • The Sahara Desert was once an ocean. Who are you going to blame that one on?

  • This world was not intended to last forever

    God gave us glaciers, a natural way to preserve fresh water. as the world population increases, the glaciers ore giving up their freshwater, and It is, being absorbed by humans. one need not worry about global warming, we will have plenty of fresh water until God puts an end to this world.

  • There's a certain irony about rich European countries experiencing direct effects of climate change brought on by modern industrial activity and fossil fuel usage.

  • Water by helicopter? – for cows ?
    It's not about stoping climate change – it's about how to deal with it

  • by the 2010 there will no ice on mt. Kilimanjaro, this was stated by the greens almost 20 yrs ago. Google what it looks like today. Now they say by the year 2050, is Joseph smith writing their scripts? Thankfully eventually glaciers do melt, otherwise we wouldn't be here

  • The party is over!

  • We do not get it!

  • Just because some people don't believe in global warming because their daily routine remains the same, sitting in a comfy couch with cold weather and a bit of heat in summer it doesn't mean that the rest of the world are, people are dying for heat strokes, the sea level is getting higher and sea creature are reaching the coast more easily, Huracanes are going into places they never went and getting stronger, things that never happened 30 – 50 years ago and the fact that it's happening today is very concerning.

    So what I'm saying with this speech is that, don't be selfish don't just think on yourself and in your comodities, look around the world and for a moment step in the shoes of other people who are feeling the climate change more straight than you.

  • What have they done to the Earth?
    What have they done to our fair sister?
    Ravaged and plundered and ripped her and bit her.
    Stuck her with knives in the side of the Dawn and
    Tied her with fences and dragged her down!

    50 year old lyrics and we still haven't learned.

    Civilization is abhorrent to the Universe.

  • America's radio babbler-supreme, Rush Limblob, call stuff like this "fake news".

  • Say goodbye to the earth…..all because people don’t want to eliminate all vehicles and build Tower cities connected to maglev Trains worldwide.

  • ONLY ten years ago there were lots more of them. And yet "we" Greta Thunberg and "US" Climate Activists are warning and demanding the we change NOW WITHIN the next 10 years. Forget about 2030 and absolutely NOT 2050. By that time we will be GONE!!! Every year (1 year) not TEN, Climate Conditions are getting WORSE! We need to act NOW!

  • Her house stood for 345 years and in 1 day was destroyed in a few minutes, because of CLIMATE CHANGE!!! And people want to wait till 2030 and even 2050 REALLY??? I truly just shake my head.

  • Buying SNOW!! WOW! Now i've heard it all. Buying SNOW to cover a mountain so people can ski to save their resorts business. And there's NO CLIMATE CHANGE!


  • Pretty bold statement; "The landslide WAS a result of climate change"…I would like to see the scientific data to back up that statement….I also like how those young trusting influential minds unquestionably just soak up the data they are fed and regurgitate facts they haven't bothered to research themselves….Sad.

  • Rich people go climb mountains…🙄

  • No volcanic eruptions aren't to blame . No cutting down co2 breathing trees aren't to blame .hell it's not even a Little something "us " non gov funded scientist s. Call solar cycles . It's me.. I'm eating too much red meat. Lmao

  • If you irrigate the mountain meadows there will be a trickle down effect & the wells begin to fill again with groundwater. Collect the manure & use!
    Collecting rainwater at ground level and pumping for irrigation of mountain meadows would also help. Connect to ground level aquifer now & later!
    As the sea levels rise, this mountain meadow will likely become a local savior for the villagers. As the age old saying goes –> "Head for the Hills!"
    With this in mind, it is imperative to begin building irrigation & agriculture at higher altitudes as the Sea levels begin to rise even faster.

  • I stopped everything, thought I would watch a few minutes and come back after a break outdoors, but couldn't leave this. At times near tears. We need a rapid paradigm shift to on a major scale create devices that remove the carbon from the atmosphere. We can do it as look what they did during WWII and manufacturing at tremendous rates, and that was many years ago. I was several months in Grindelwald Switzerland in 1975 and 1976. The resort I did kitchen work for to earn travel money… Hotel Sunstar, the workers lived in the old chalet, which I liked much better than the new one ha! There was a beautiful oil painting of the valley there where (I don't know today but probably not visible any more) you could see how the glacier receded in the maybe 80 years prior. I was amazed then at how much the glacier receded. You could still see the glacier from the chalet then. I hiked along it on solid rock and saw mountain climbers in training climbing it. So if I saw that then, there's nothing new in regard to the glaciers receding too fast. I bet all that is receded by far more than it was then, maybe none of it visible from the chalet. Sad.

  • As long as we keep VW as the biggest car company in the world, that is all the matters, who need ice, water, and clean air?

  • Interglacial Temps Have Been Tempered by Younger Dryas Event —
    The ‘Younger Dryas’ event disrupted the warming effect of the Milankovitch Cycle. Temperatures would’ve been much warmer and sea levels higher during our current interglacial period otherwise. Milankovitch himself said we were sliding into the next ice age a hundred years ago — however, CO2 levels increased and the Greenhouse Effect held sway. Now, we see a dynamic increase in global temperatures that will not stop unless we reverse overall greenhouse gas levels.
    Search: mann's hockey stick too short
    Search: doable drawdown solutions

  • Stop telling children the end is near, it's a lie and you know it… you are robbing them of a future, they are scayed and soon to be self harming depressed In 15 years they will get out of rehab and see another generation getting lied to, and say…WTF?, then attack YOU.

  • 06:27 Using windows 8.1 in 2019, climate change is a hoax.

  • It is so imortant rescuing the millon euro ski turism ?
    The whole World should rescue them ?

  • Single events are not a sign of climate change. Decade long events are. If you look at the glaciers 100 years ago and today, the difference is very clear. The glaciers retreated hundreds of meters.

  • Why when you talking about glaciers not mentioning that "studies show that solar variability has played a role in past climate changes. For example, a decrease in solar activity coupled with an increase in volcanic activity is thought to have helped trigger the Little Ice Age between approximately 1650 and 1850, when Greenland cooled from 1410 to the 1720s and glaciers advanced in the Alps".

  • Why is not one talking or investigating about the effect of all the polución on the sky made by the chemtrails or contrails? Most people are unaware of that because they are focused or glued to their cell phones and hardly look up to the sky … all those white trails on the sky are happening everyday and worldwide in almost every big city around the world… it’s sickening to witness that. I constantly heard in the news that climate change is caused by us (regular citizens) ignoring that mostly is been caused by big corporations… and Governments do so little to help, they are more interested on wars and destroying nature in the process.

  • This is such a shocking bit of news. I was skiing in wengen and I went to Saint Moritz in the summer I loved writing on the ski lifts and seeing the beautiful animals graze Below in those wonderful fields of flowers and grass. And we went to the zugspitze also. My heart is breaking for Switzerland

  • keeping the visitors happy is all that matters….isn't that great? visitors who pollute to get there, by car, by planes…this society is really fucked up. Only monies matter

  • According to the Vostok Ice Core Records, CO2 level changes have followed Earth's overall temperature changes at an 800 year lag for the last 800,000 years. That means that our current CO2 levels are the result of Earth's overall temperature 800 years ago. World leaders have convinced their dependents that this works in the reverse order, relatively quickly, and that we are to blame, so that they can tax us out of a false shared guilt in order to be able to afford to "fight" climate change, an unstoppable natural cycle. The following is the source of this information:

    Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core

    J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius
    Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Géophysique de l'Environnement,
    CNRS, BP96,
    38402 Saint Martin d'Heres Cedex, France

    N.I. Barkov
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute,
    Beringa Street 38, 199397,
    St. Petersburg, Russia

    Period of Record
    417,160 – 2,342 years BP

    In January 1998, the collaborative ice-drilling project between Russia, the United States, and France at the Russian Vostok station in East Antarctica yielded the deepest ice core ever recovered, reaching a depth of 3,623 m (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Ice cores are unique with their entrapped air inclusions enabling direct records of past changes in atmospheric trace-gas composition. Preliminary data indicate the Vostok ice-core record extends through four climate cycles, with ice slightly older than 400 kyr (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Because air bubbles do not close at the surface of the ice sheet but only near the firn-ice transition (that is, at ~90 m below the surface at Vostok), the air extracted from the ice is younger than the surrounding ice (Barnola et al. 1991). Using semiempirical models of densification applied to past Vostok climate conditions, Barnola et al. (1991) reported that the age difference between air and ice may be ~6000 years during the coldest periods instead of ~4000 years, as previously assumed. Ice samples were cut with a bandsaw in a cold room (at about -15°C) as close as possible to the center of the core in order to avoid surface contamination (Barnola et al. 1983). Gas extraction and measurements were performed with the "Grenoble analytical setup," which involved crushing the ice sample (~40 g) under vacuum in a stainless-steel container without melting it, expanding the gas released during the crushing in a pre-evacuated sampling loop, and analyzing the CO2 concentrations by gas chromatography (Barnola et al. 1983). The analytical system, except for the stainless-steel container in which the ice was crushed, was calibrated for each ice sample measurement with a standard mixture of CO2 in nitrogen and oxygen. For further details on the experimental procedures and the dating of the successive ice layers at Vostok, see Barnola et al. (1987, 1991), Lorius et al. (1985), and Petit et al. (1999).

    There is a close correlation between Antarctic temperature and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (Barnola et al. 1987). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows that the main trends of CO2 are similar for each glacial cycle. Major transitions from the lowest to the highest values are associated with glacial-interglacial transitions. During these transitions, the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 rises from 180 to 280-300 ppmv (Petit et al. 1999). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows the present-day levels of CO2 are unprecedented during the past 420 kyr. Pre-industrial Holocene levels (~280 ppmv) are found during all interglacials, with the highest values (~300 ppmv) found approximately 323 kyr BP. When the Vostok ice core data were compared with other ice core data (Delmas et al. 1980; Neftel et al. 1982) for the past 30,000 – 40,000 years, good agreement was found between the records: all show low CO2 values [~200 parts per million by volume (ppmv)] during the Last Glacial Maximum and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations associated with the glacial-Holocene transition. According to Barnola et al. (1991) and Petit et al. (1999) these measurements indicate that, at the beginning of the deglaciations, the CO2 increase either was in phase or lagged by less than ~1000 years with respect to the Antarctic temperature, whereas it clearly lagged behind the temperature at the onset of the glaciations.

    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, A. Neftel, and H. Oeschger. 1983. Comparison of CO2 measurements by two laboratories on air from bubbles in polar ice. Nature 303:410-13.

    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, Y.S. Korotkevich, and C. Lorius. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329:408-14.

    Barnola, J.-M., P. Pimienta, D. Raynaud, and Y.S. Korotkevich. 1991. CO2-climate relationship as deduced from the Vostok ice core: A re-examination based on new measurements and on a re-evaluation of the air dating. Tellus 43(B):83- 90.

    Delmas, R.J., J.-M. Ascencio, and M. Legrand. 1980. Polar ice evidence that atmospheric CO2 20,000 yr BP was 50% of present. Nature 284:155-57.

    Jouzel, J., C. Lorius, J.R. Petit, C. Genthon, N.I. Barkov, V.M. Kotlyakov, and V.M. Petrov. 1987. Vostok ice core: A continuous isotopic temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years). Nature 329:403-8.

    Lorius, C., J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, N.I. Barkov, Y.S. Korotkevich, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316:591-96.

    Neftel, A., H. Oeschger, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, and R. Zumbrunn. 1982. Ice core measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the past 40,000 yr. Nature 295:220-23.

    Pepin, L., D. Raynaud, J.-M. Barnola, and M.F. Loutre. 2001. Hemispheric roles of climate forcings during glacial-interglacial transitions as deduced from the Vostok record and LLN-2D model experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (D23): 31,885-31,892.

    Petit, J.R., I. Basile, A. Leruyuet, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, M. Stievenard, V.Y. Lipenkov, N.I. Barkov, B.B. Kudryashov, M. Davis, E. Saltzman, and V. Kotlyakov. 1997. Four climate cycles in Vostok ice core. Nature 387: 359-360.

    Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Benders, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delayque, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429-436.

    Raynaud, D., and J.-M. Barnola. 1985. An Antarctic ice core reveals atmospheric CO2 variations over the past few centuries. Nature 315:309-11.

    CITE AS: Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, and N.I. Barkov. 2003. Historical CO2 record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.

    Revised February 2003

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