Environmental and Public Health Issues


ok welcome back so we will start our material
for week two now ah we have done the week one if you remember ah from the week one we
had a big overview of electronic waste we talked about what are the different components
we also looked at ah ah the different types of chemicals present ah we talked about the
cost associated with that how it is managed kind of had a big overview of that aspect
as well and then we also try to quantify see if you have to quantify the amount of e waste
produced in a one particular city or region how to go about that and ah i i showed you
an example of kolkata city in terms of ah how to estimate how much e waste would be
produced and how much money that can be generated by recycling of those e waste so now we will ah in this this particular
week will focus on ah and i hope you had done already the quiz if you have not done please
do the quiz and submit it on time and ah so in this week we will be focusing on looking
at the environmental and public health aspect so as i as i was telling in the earlier as
well anything we are especially from the environmental point of view we are always worried about
its impact on the environment its impact on the soil water air and also impact on the
human health so thats what we are talking about when we say environmental and public
health issues so when we talk about that so in there are
different types of ah ah we have a trace components we have organic chemicals in terms of different
types of trace material present we are looking at lead mercury and ah so in terms of ah the
different ah components as you can see we have the inorganic inorganic chemicals and
we have the organic chemicals so these are the two broad categories of ah contaminant
among the inorganic we have the lead mercury cadmium beryllium arsenic silver and they
are there because they are used for certain applicator they ah they they do certain function
on different electronics even in your cell phone if you take your mobile phone if you
have a smart phone just go online and try to find out based on the make and model you
have if you start trying to find out what are the different components present you may
be able to see that its till many of the cellphones a little bit of lead there some mercury is
present cadmium could be there beryllium arsenic silver maybe there may not be there depends
on how how ah like how how much old is your cell phone and ah some some mec has time to
get rid off that and try to introduce other elements in there which is less ah environmental
impact less human health impact then p c bs which is ah polycyclic ah this
is ah this is used a lot in ah ah in ah in in the capacitors in the transformers and
other places they were used for ah as a flame retardants as well the other flame retardants
are also there so there are a lot of ah different ah like a different ah chemicals which is
used in different types of electronics ah ah industry and then these chemicals they
do a certain function but at the same time they also lead to environmental impact or
or ah ah impact in terms of ah human health so we have certain toxicity concern in terms
of ah different types of elements present from the periodic table so as you can see
lead is the number one [ca/cause]cause of concern in terms of ah when we look at the
e waste lead ah from the periodic table if you remember lead is ah present we have the
ah lead right over there its ah one of the heavy metals lead is used in printed wire
board thats where we see a lot and c r ts cathode ray tubes so this is your ah when
you do the soldering iron this is kind of a zoomed image of a solder ah on on a particular
printed wire board so you see the printed wire board here so
these are small small sorters that has been zoomed in here and kind of solder zoomed image
of that so thats thats where the sources of lead are thats where the lead is being used
in electronic industry so lead is there and ah lead base solder even if you have done
a small science project in your high school or if your first year electronics project
maybe you have done some soldiering on ah certain ah you made some call like call bell
or any any small toys even if you made you can you will be using those lead base solder
and ah so thats what ah so thats where the lead is coming from in the electronics for
the c r t is the lead is also used as a layer to protect the harmful ray from coming to
us in terms of ah impacting our ah health i think we will look at it is yeah here it
is so in terms of the c r ts now we are phasing
out c r t you dont see these type of monitors even in ah for the computers and also you
dont see these type of monitors in your home so the newer that flat panel ah were probably
that flat panel computer monitor of flat panel t vs it still have a little bit of lead but
the amount of lead has gone down so thats ah but its still we use a layer of lead as
you can see over here as you can ah look at this particular ah you see this is ah like
a one kind of its its called its called the frit which the by weight it is nearly seventy
percent lead as you can see over here by weight its nearly seventy percent lead
the newer one is much less but in the disposal stream is still we see lot of c r ts coming
out so the c r ts do so up in the disposal stream thats where ah we still see a lot of
leads showing up then we have ah in the funnel we have twenty four percent lead ah in the
neck we have thirty percent lead and these are all by weight so these are all by weight
so we in the face we have zero to three percent lead
so why this lead is there because it helps it keeping the harmful rays away and ah so
that the harmful rays dont impact our health ah when you are using these ah ah tvs or computer
monitors so thats ah thats the reason why it is there and ah so thats in terms of ah
and then if you look at the monochrome c r ts ah we dont have ah in the monochrome again
we have the neck funnel and the face where you see these ah things are being used so
not only lead there are other solders are also presents ah other ah sorry other elements
ah other metals are also present since solders so here as you can see ah one ah the different
types of example ah we have tin lead solder which is the most common solder is still used
in many parts of the world many ah some countries have banned this use of lead based solder
and they have tried to go for these alternative ones so if ah we when we go for alternative
ones there of course any any product that you have it it has a certain intended function
isnt it so it has to do the function so this soldiering what did they do they all these
different chips which is there on your ah ah printed wire but so there they put these
chips in position and then you have solder it so and it keeps it in the position so this
new ah soldiering ah complex is should be able to do that as well since lead and zinc
used to do that work very nicely its easily available easy to work with thats why they
were popular now when we learned that lead is not good
for health we are trying to replace lead with other material so these are some of the other
alternatives so what are those we have some tin copper which is ah essentially a lot of
tin a little bit of ah ah like a ninety nine point ninety nine percent tin and then point
eight percent copper ninety nine point two percent actually then we have tin silver copper
bismuth tin and silver tin silver bismuth copper so there are different options are
there and ah based on their cost and other stuff of course we know silver is costly and
ah copper also has certain price so we have to compare to other elements which is listed
here so we can use ah some of these elements in
terms of ah replacing lead but they are they also have for example silver or bismuth ah
they also have certain ah like a toxicity values so we have to we have to make sure
whenever we are substituting one element with the other element it is always we need to
ah ensure that the other element should not cause another problem so it should not become
that one problem is solved but the other problem got started so [may/many] many many times
it does happen that way because ah we dont look at things in a systems perspective we
look things in a silos perspective when we say silos we are actually looking at one compartment
at a time ah one example i would tell you that if you have
ah for the for example in the water treatment plant water treatment plant if there we brought
down our artistic is stranded from fifty micrograms per liter to ten micrograms per liter now
ten micrograms per liter if the arsenic has to be removed it it doesnt dissipate it doesnt
go going to disappear is going to stay somewhere so where it will be it will be in the sludge
so the drinking water sludge that is produced will have more arsenic
now because we are removing this arsenic from the water phase so it will be in the solid
phase and now that the arsenic bearing sludge if not managed properly if it just dumped
on the side of a lake or dumped on the side of any surface water or put it in a dump site
so what we are doing we are actually what we did that arsenic problem from the drinking
water we made it a solid waste problem and the over time it will become leaching of arsenic
from there and it will be it will go to lake and other places and contaminate the ah the
surface water and potentially groundwater as well
so we have to manage that arsenic bearing sludge properly if you dont do that part of
the job just focus on the water treatment part actually we are not really solving the
problem hundred percent we we are just ah making one problem go away by creating another
problem so we have to make sure the other problem also addressed so here again when
we are getting rid of lead and using these other elements we need to make sure that other
elements also does this should not have leaching and other impact in a high concentration enough
to become toxic because they they also have certain toxicity values
so being said that so these are the but there are different ah like ah we we do have different
ah elements present there so are and why they are there we already i just try to mention
that earlier that they they are there because they do certain function so for example arsenic
is used in semiconductors antimony you will use in solders c r t glass cadmium ah plated
contacts and switches plastics batteries nickel cadmium batteries cadmium is largely used
a lot in the batteries we have mercury which is used as lightning switches and relays beryllium
beryllium is used in the motherboard it also used as a heat sink because when things get
started heating up beryllium keeps ah acts as a heat sink to keep ah ah the heat away
so thats ah ah so there are and then there are some organic
chemicals we have polychlorinated biphenyls which is p c bs we have brominated flame retardants
which are used we have different types of mixed plastic so if you look at any of this
ah ah you have if you have a remote at home you look at the remote the type of plastic
or even if as you see these pictures over ah see this picture over here as you can see
these plastic materials these are not one particular type of plastic these are blended
plastic many of these plastics over here is also blended plastic
so what what do you mean by blended plastic that two three different types of plastic
blended together they do the function what it is intended to do but it becomes a nightmare
for the waste management people because since its a blended plastic you cannot really recycle
this plastic [e/easily]easily they are two three plastic together now you have to separate
two three different types of plastic to make it recyclable and it becomes a big big problem
its not profitable its not economically viable to do that so what happens then one option
is this plastics will be sent to the waste to energy plans because they have a good ah
heat value they have a good calorific value and potentially can be used for energy production
so thats ah option is there but ah when you do that you have to make sure that ah all
the air pollution control systems are taken care off
then we have the other aspect which is the [ba/ brominated] brominated flame retardants
which is used a lot ah p b d e s which is polybrominated flame retardant hexabromocyclodecane
decca b d e and t b b p a so brominated flame retardants are used quite a bit and what is
the use of ah as the name suggests flame retardants so what does that mean it is retarding the
flame so where the flame will take place say when you are using your laptop are you using
an electronics you see that over time it gets heated up so there are so it may catch fire
if that the heating is not controlled so that to control the heat
this flame retardants are there and the flame retardants is not only used in electronics
its used for furnitures it used in your ah ah couches it used in ah ah your mattresses
and not lot are the places so flame retardant so have you been used in different places
and its still a lot of research is going on in terms of what is the adverse health impact
or environmental impact of flame retardants some some results suggest that it could be
potentially like a carcinogen or can have a different types of impact on human body
so but again ah ah its it beads needed flame ah talents are needed for the functioning
of those particularly electronics so thats the reason why it is there ah its ah its its
its there because its its needed over there only thing
is that now to rather than using these flame retardants brominated flame retardants also
causes dioxins and furans so can we use some other flame retardants which you will not
cause these environmental ah contaminants so thats ah what we need to kind of ah look
at so again ah some other ah like semiconductors
for arsenic and selenium battery you have the natal ah nickel cadmium lithium nickel
cadmium all those batteries are used nickel cadmium battery pack is there ah which is
used in different types of electronics we have mercury lamps from laptop ah some of
the newer laptops ah they dont have mercury lamps but the older ones would do have these
ah you can see the mercury lamps being used ah from the laptop
so thats where it is being used and so all these electronics ah which is being ah ah
generated so we were looking at the different ah contaminant present in the electronics
and once they are ah when they become part of the electronic waste this contaminants
comes to the electronic waste what the in terms of the real impact on environment or
real impact on human health will come if its not managed properly if we can manage it properly
it its ah the impact can be minimized what is happening today ah over ah things or kind
of where most of these electronics ah from in ah in the developed countries there are
some infrastructure ah where they are trying to recycle they are trying to manage these
electronics but whatever electronics they are not able
to manage a good chunk of that is ending up in the developing countries so there has been
a lot of protest against that as well so but this particular picture kind of shows you
some scenarios which is ah this is a bit older picture not ah brand ah because these kind
of graphs doesnt get created every year so this is couple of years old picture ah i would
say nearly four years old now but ah this is what was the scenario four or five years
ago because if a four year picture the probably the data was collected in another two or three
years back so this is some scenario ah few years back and the scene years have improved
a little bit but its still not hundred its not totally perfect
so if you can look at this particular ah ah image right here what we are looking at is
how the e waste is moving a ah ah globally and ah its an environmental justice issue
its an environmental ah ah ah i would say kind of ah ah we we we need to look at ahcarefully
in terms of ah how to prevent this from happening so what is happen what is what we are looking
at here if you look at carefully ah i hope the color combination is good enough for to
see the differences here so we have few places which has been designated
as the major source of electronics so we have european union ah u s south korea japan australia
so these are the known sources of the e waste produced now the red dots and the dots and
the size of the dot bigger the size dot means bigger amount of waste is being produced and
ah then the red dots are the ones where that e waste are being handled so as you can see
you the [mo/most]most of the red dots where you see the red dots are being aware the waste
is being managed and ah so as you can see the waste is traveling from u s to africa
from also from u s to china and from european union to india from u s to india and from
ah even to south american countries from australia again to china and ah singapore acts as a
hub actually where it kind of indonesia thailand so we so most of in terms of the electronic
waste that is being produced ah again as i said this this data would be five six years
old so electronic waste in the big hot spots where the electronic waste are being produced
is u s european union south korea japan australia and those countries where they are mostly
managed is china india pakistan brazil mexico nigeria thailand singapore u a e kenya tanzania
so thats where the e waste is actually traveling and the problem with this ah model is most
of these developing countries although the regulations are in place there is a u s management
rules twenty sixteen and in india as well which was first one came in twenty eleven
which has to be implemented in twenty twelve so we do have a new e waste management rules
as well but the problem is on the implementation type the implementation side is still in indian
context as i was telling you in the first week ah nearly ninety percent of the wastage
gets managed in the informal sector so think about that our waste extreme is increasing
and at the same time we are getting the waste from abroad and its creating more and more
problem of in terms of the environment and ah human health impact
so there is a the thats problem needs to stop like a where the wastage needs it needs to
be managed what happens in many times actually the waste ah when its gets sent over to these
countries they are not sent as a waste they are sent as the old computers for donations
old computers for this and that and by the time it comes here most of it lately half
of it will be dead on arrival so its ah becomes a waste over here and of course ah its its
a its its not that one way to one way stuff things we have people in ah in these countries
who want these waste to come because they kind of make ah living out of that so but
there is a lot of ah adverse environmental and human health impact
now if you look at ah in terms of how the waste is being ah produced and this is this
was an estimate done ah again ah nearly i think two thousand ten so it was an estimate
then that by twenty thirty how the e waste production will change so as you can see if
you can see over here the take home message from this particular graph would be if you
look at ah developing countries and developed countries so things at the bottom is your
ah ah developed that ah the various where you see the cross these are your developing
countries at the bottom so here to start with we have the developing country data at the
bottom and then we have the developed country data on top here
now at some point like around twenty sixteen twenty seventeen what we are looking at is
actually the developing countries are picking up and the developed countries are still producing
but things are flattening out over there because of the less population here more and more
population and ah th affordability of electronics are going up so we see a increase in the waste
that is being produced within the developing countries and of course the this this also
is increasing but the rate of increase is much less here basically you see kind of an
exponential growth of ah electronic waste ah that is being produced in developing countries
so thats ah and then there is a lower bound upper bound baseline kind of some estimation
is there so as you can see that as of today the e waste
that is being produced in developing countries is actually getting higher than the developed
countries and then on top of that if we start getting the e waste on the developed countries
to the developing country that becomes a nightmare in terms of managing those so just to kind
of put things in perspective a little bit here
so now we looked at ah in terms of what is the ah ah different elements present we looked
at in terms of how the waste is traveling around and then the thing is that and then
different chemicals different elements so thing is that ok why should we worried about
what is that what is really the harm what is how it is causing the heart
so lets look at that part so in terms of causing the harm it will be through the exposure routes
how things are the different elements are explore are ah how our body gets exposed to
these contaminants so either through either through lungs which is inhalation of dust
metal fumes and vapors while the e waste is being produced ah ah e waste is being processed
or through skin which is the through contact with dust or mouth by ingestion like if you
[conta/ contaminated]contaminated ah soil or contaminated food or something contaminated
water and thats how you get [x/exposed] so its through inhalation dermal and ingestion
so those are the three major ways of any contaminant where we get ah the exposure from
so so if you look at the in terms of the health hazard from these exposure from the electronics
so if you say these are the different ah electronic products ah it is ah we are showing you here
the different electronic products now if you have some ah the way it is being managed in
terms of the end of life management there is a informal recycling burning things are
being not done properly so what it is doing it is liquid is releasing to the water in
the ground and the ground there could be some uptake by the aquatic organisms in those ah
water now the aquatic organism will go to the aquatic food from the aquatic food it
will come to human food because fish and all that so we are a part of that food chain as
well then if it goes to the it can ah into the
land it can go to the animal product then it can impact the crop and impact the drinking
water can have a direct exposure to and ah then if you are ah doing a burning of that
open burning so you things could be through inhalation that will be lungs getting affected
and ah so those those are all how things will get human exposure pathway that what you will
see in terms of the health hazard now elements that you already kind of looked
at here is a brief summary of the different ah stuff in there i will not read all that
but ah this ah again this ah slides will be available for you to read what are that we
are looking at a selenium were leads to certain hair loss and other stuff nail brittleness
beryllium ah much which is breathing difficulties chest pain mercury central nervous system
kidney chromium six d n a damage ah arsenic lung cancer we all need a t c e kidney and
liver damage lead exposure brain damage nervous system damage ah p v c
which is due to burning it produces large amount of h c l which becomes respiratory
problem then we have barium ah exposure may lead to brain swelling muscle weakness may
be a far brominated flame retardant suspected to hormonal ah interference of reproductive
system p c b s a reproductive damage liver damage dioxin furan is skin disorder liver
problem immune order cadmium which leads to kidney so as you can see all these a different
electronics that we use has certain impact negative impact on our health so if the im
electronics is not managed in a ah proper way its a if its ah gets into ah our water
air and soil it will lead to ah our health hazard so thats what we were trying to ah
stress upon on this ah particular slide so ah potential exposure media air soil dust
water sediments biota food we already kind of looked at in the previous previous ah slide
there is a list of twenty top hazardous substances they are the priority list of hazardous substances
this is this list is revised every two years ah to look at and the the amount of stuff
that we looked at ah right now as you will see ah most of it will just go in a minute
ah they why they are listed because the pose the most significant potential threat to human
health based on known or suspected toxicity and ah can be there ah if there if its there
on the list we are try its its a high frequency occurrence and potential for human exposure
even if it is not among the most toxic substance in terms of what can cause more harm
so these are the amount ah different elements listed only ah on that particular list and
if you remember from the couple of slides back many of these also show up in that particular
slide so lead arsenic lead mercury even ah poly ah p c bs ah cadmium we we talked about
ah like a our ah different chromium ah hexavalent chromium so all these different stuff thats
show up on those e waste list this is not only related to e waste this list is general
can be from different hazardous ah waste but e waste also has several of these ah stuff
ah present thats the reason why we are worried about the e waste management and you are i
already showed you in a big picture in terms of its ah human health impact
so so that the may now we will ah try to look at individually some of these metals little
bit in detail so arsenic beryllium cadmium chromium mercury lead lead and hm ah nickel
so we will try to say if they are all heavy metals we probably you know heavy metal high
atomic weight with a specific gravity ah of exceeds a specific gravity of water by five
or more at four degrees centigrade so some of these just a recap for you i would like
you to arsenic ah depends on the different chemical form there in there gold refining
of gold used in pesticides when exposure can come from injection and inhalation ah ah
now we have ten micrograms per liter has the standard to standard has been lowered we know
that it causes all different types of ah stuff again im not going to read these ah stuff
you ah ah just for your information ah you can i will provide you this ah document as
a reading material as well so just read that again ah to find out why why why we should
be worried about especially from the u s perspective ah otherwise obviously it it has certain ah
[environ/ environmental]environmental impact and ah we do see a acute poisoning exposure
from our from our stick ah from a few minutes to approximately one hour ah i would say its
if you have a long term exposure you can reduce cognitive functioning mimicking of chronic
disease cyst symptom is there then layer cadmium its ah occupational exposure
to cadmium for production of nickel cadmium batteries zinc smelting and all that cadmium
ah there is a exposure his through cigarette smoke and dietary cadmium cadmium many times
our body gets confused between cadmium and calcium so cadmium gets up taken in the body
in place of calcium cadmium bioaccumulates in selfish and mushrooms as well so it does
have an exposure in osteoporosis and woman height loss kidney damage elevated blood pressure
cardiovascular disease itai itai disease which is ah will happen in japan where the cadmium
was coming into the soil and when the people ah consumed that soil
that calcium the body bones ah where the calcium is used to be ah present cadmium got ah got
in their and then it feels caught brittle bones and people who started breaking their
ah legs and hands and other stuff so that is what is the itai itai disease was all about
ah mercury its a natural occurring metal it is
highly toxic release into environmental as by product coal ah coal also has mercury and
exposure to mercury causes to ah it comes from ah lakes rivers other pates microorganism
ingest there is a bioaccumulation of mercury as well through methyl mercury ah minamata
disease was actually methyl mercury again japan ah if you can ah if you dont know about
that google it you will find it its base methyl mercury which was there in the water [called/caused]caused
a lot of problem to the population there then water contaminant around mines
that also causes ah mercury contamination it ah targets the nervous system so in minamata
japan murphy got discharged from factory into the bay mercury transformed to by the into
methyl mercury methyl mercury concentrated in the fish and that people when they consume
that fish they were affected so there could be spilled liquid mercury naturally a liquid
at room temperature so its ah it texas so vapor pressure at room temperature produces
concentration in excess of exposure limit so we we will actually what what we will do
is there will also give you a reading material which ah talks about a little bit of this
basic chemistry stuff so that you can ah you can read that material
to get some idea about the different chemistry stuff because some of the stuff that we talked
about a vapor pressure vapor density and all those kind of you have already read that but
you may not remember it so that would be a quick recap and we will try to post that particular
ah ah material for you so inhalation is skin absorption ingestion
those things are there cleanup is costly for mercury then ah we have other elements present
so lets say stop ah in terms of ah where from at the mercury and then we will continue this
discussion in the next video so what we are being safe you for any any lecture ah video
say we will try to summarize towards the end as you have you may have seen in the previous
one as well the previous week as well so in this video we started with looking at the
environmental and public health impact so we talked about ah what are the different
elements which are different chemicals present and what ah in what ah what are the different
negative impact associated with that where they are in the electronics how it is being
used in the electronics then we had a nice summary slide ah where
we showed you how the different exposure scenarios and at the same time what are the different
impact that will come on the body from ah some of these contaminants then for each individually
so for some of the contaminant we are [good/goimg]going into a little bit detail to give you some
more idea and then we will carry our discussion further for ah in this particular aspect so
i hope you are enjoying the course so far again any question feel free to put on the
discussion forum we will be more than happy to answer you do your homework read the material
and ah hm do the quizzes on time and of course if you have i would look for out in i would
like ah each one of you to take the exam as well if possible
so thank you and see you again in the next video

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