How Evolution works


Mechanisms of evolution What is evolution? Evolution is the development of life on Earth. This is a process that began billions of years ago and is still continuing to this day. Evolution tells us how it was possible for the enormous diversity of life to develop. It shows us how primitive Protozoa could become the millions of different species that we see today. Evolution, then, is the answer to the question that we have all asked on seeing a Daschund and a Great Dane together: how is it possible for ancestors to have descendants that look so very different to them? In answering this question, we want to focus on animals, excluding other forms of life such as fungi and plants. The first question to ask is therefore: how can one animal develop into a whole new species of animal? Ah, but just a quick question: what exactly is a species? A species is a community of animals that is capable of producing offspring with one another, with those offspring also being capable of reproducing in turn. To understand this answer better, we need to take a closer look at the following points: the uniqueness of living creatures, guaranteed through the excess production of offspring and heredity, and as a second key point, selection. Let’s begin with uniqueness. Every creature that exists is unique, and this is essential for evolution. The members of a species may strongly resemble each other in appearance; however, they all have slightly different traits and characteristics. They may be a bit bigger, fatter, stronger, or bolder than their fellow animals. So, what is the reason for these differences? Let’s take a closer look at a creature. Every creature is made up of cells. These cells have a nucleus. The nucleus contains the chromosomes, and the chromosomes hold the DNA. DNA consists of different genes, and it’s these genes that are life’s information carriers. They contain instructions and orders for the cells, and determine the characteristics and traits that living creatures have, and it’s precisely this DNA that is unique to every creature. It’s slightly different from individual to individual, which is why each has slightly different characteristics. But how is the enormous range of DNA created? One key factor is the excess production of offspring. In nature, we can observe that creatures generally produce far more offspring than is necessary for the survival of their species, with many offspring dying an early death as a result. Often there are even more offspring than the environment in which they live is able to support. This is one factor in increasing diversity within a species. The more offspring that are produced, the more little differences occur, and this is what nature wants: as many little differences as possible. The second major cause of the uniqueness of individuals occurs in heredity itself. By the way, heredity means the passing on of DNA to offspring. Two very interesting factors come into play in this process: recombination and mutation. Recombination is the random mixing of the DNA of two creatures. When two creatures fall in love and mate, they recombine their genes twice. The first time, they do this separately when they generate the gametes – that is, sperm and egg cells. The gametes take half of the genes and shuffle them. The second recombination occurs when a male inseminates a female. The parents each provide 50% of their DNA, in other words, 50% of their unique traits and characteristics. These are then recombined, or mixed, and the result is new offspring. These offspring have a random mix of the DNA, and therefore the traits and characteristics of their parents. This increases the diversity and differences within a species even further, but mutations are also important for evolution. Mutations are random changes in DNA. These can also be described as copying errors within the DNA, triggered by toxins or other chemical substances, or by radiation. A mutation exists when part of the DNA is altered. These changes are often negative, and may result in illnesses such as cancer. However, they may also have neutral or positive effects, such as the blue eye colour in humans, which is one such random mutation. In all cases, a mutation has to affect a gamete, that is a sperm or egg cell, because only the DNA in the gametes is passed on to the offspring. This is also the reason why we protect our sexual organs during x-rays, whilst other parts of the body are not at risk. In summary then, in the heredity process, creatures pass on their characteristics to their offspring in the form of DNA. Recombination and mutation change the DNA so that each child looks different to its siblings, and receives a random mix of the characteristics of its parents. There’s a key word here: random. All of these processes are based on chance. Random recombination and mutations result in individuals with random mixes of traits and characteristics, which in turn mix these randomly, and pass them on. But how can so much be down to chance, when all living creatures are so perfectly adapted to their environment, for example, the stick insect, the hummingbird, and the frogfish? The answer is provided by the second key point: selection. Each individual is subjected to a process of natural selection. As we have learned, each individual is somewhat different to its fellows, and there is extensive variation within a species. Environmental influences have an effect on living creatures. These so-called selection factors include: predators, parasites, animals of the same species, toxins, changes in habitat, or the climate. Selection is a process that each individual is subjected to. Every creature has a unique mix of traits and characteristics. This mix helps them to survive in their environment, or not, as the case may be. Anyone with an unsuitable mix will be selected from the environment. Those with the right mix survive, and can pass on their enhanced traits and characteristics. This is why diversity is so important. This is why creatures make so much effort to produce offspring that are as different as possible. They increase the likelihood that at least one of their offspring passes nature’s selection process. They maximize their chances of survival. A good example of this can be seen in a group of finches living on a remote island. They are some of the most famous animals in the world of science, and are known as Darwin finches, after their discoverer, Charles Darwin, and this is the story of those finches. A few hundred years ago, a small group of finches was blown onto the Galapagos Islands in the middle of the Pacific, probably by a big storm. The finches found themselves in an environment that was completely new to them, a real finch paradise: an abundance of food and no predators. They reproduced rapidly and numerously. The islands were soon heaving with finches. This meant that food supplies became increasingly scarce. The finch paradise was threatened with famine, and finch friends became competitors. This is when selection intervened. Their individuality and small differences, in this case their slightly different beaks, meant that some of the birds were able to avoid competing with their fellow finches. The beaks of some of the finches were more suitable for digging for worms. Other finches were able to use their beaks better for cracking seeds. The finches consequently sort out ecological niches. In these niches, they were safe from excessive competition. They soon began to mate primarily with other finches that used the same niche. Over the course of many generations, these characteristics were enhanced, enabling the finches to exploit their niches successfully. The differences between the worm-diggers and the seed-crackers became so large that they were no longer able to mate with one another. Different species emerged as a result. Today, there are 14 different species of finch living on the Galapagos Islands, all of which are descended from the same group of stranded finches. This is how new species are created by evolution: through the interaction of unique individuals, the excess production of offspring, recombination and mutation in heredity, and finally, through selection. Why is this so important? It tells us where the variety of life comes from, and why living creatures are so perfectly adapted to their habitats. But it also effects us personally. Every person is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution, and that includes you. Your ancestors fought and adapted in order to survive. This survival was an extremely uncertain thing. If we consider the fact that 99% of all the species that have ever lived are extinct, then you can consider yourself part of a success story. The dinosaurs have disappeared, but you are alive, watching this video, because you’re incredibly special, just like all the other creatures that exist today: irreproducible and unique in the universe.

Comments 48

  • There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

  • Profile of Charles Darwin:
    1. Charles Darwin studied theology. He received a 'not an honours' degree in theology. So he was technically Reverend Charles Darwin. Without an honours degree, he was not that honourable.
    2. Charles Darwin didn't do any job in his whole life.
    3. Charles Darwin didn't pay any taxes because he didn't do any job, and he didn't earn any taxable money.
    4. Charles Darwin practised in-breeding (marriage within blood relationships).
    5. Charles Darwin recanted his theory of evolution when he was on his death bed.
    6. Charles Darwin stuttered throughout his life.
    7. Charles Darwin was bed-ridden most of his adult life.
    8. Charles Darwin was schizophrenic. He would often go on a tangent. It was impossible for him to engage in a sensible conversation.
    9. What job did Reverend Charles Darwin do during the beagle voyage since his voice apparatus was under d d d developed, and he was suffering from s s s schizophrenia? Was he taking meds? What meds was he taking?
    10. How did Charles Darwin earn money to pay for his daily-living during Beagle voyage, and after the voyage? < He could’ve received lots of black money (to last him for his life time) from the drunken sailors when the ship would dock in. >
    11. Charles Darwin kept a long beard throughout his adult life. It is a sign of him following Muslim Mohammed (Islam) and evil Baphomet.

  • Just keep calm and report Professor/Oscar Hero/Inventionless Spain for spamming.

  • FIRST VID!!!!!! OMG

  • 4:14 Oh noo…no…nooooooooooooo

  • Ahhh the days before this channel became a conduit for spam

  • I really love your videos, but there are many kids watching this, so I would suggest you to delete the part where the bears are having sex

  • 2019

  • God I never knew that you made this video XD I had to watch this video in school

  • Wait is this there first video?

  • Profile of Charles Darwin:
    1. Charles Darwin studied theology. He received a 'not an honours' degree in theology. So he was technically Reverend Charles Darwin. Without an honours degree, he was not that honourable.
    2. Charles Darwin didn't do any job in his whole life.
    3. Charles Darwin didn't pay any taxes because he didn't do any job, and he didn't earn any taxable money.
    4. Charles Darwin practised in-breeding (marriage within blood relationships).
    5. Charles Darwin recanted his theory of evolution when he was on his death bed.
    6. Charles Darwin stuttered throughout his life.
    7. Charles Darwin was bed-ridden most of his adult life.
    8. Charles Darwin was schizophrenic. He would often go on a tangent. It was impossible for him to engage in a sensible conversation.
    9. What job did Reverend Charles Darwin do during the beagle voyage since his voice apparatus was under d d d developed, and he was suffering from s s s schizophrenia? Was he taking meds? What meds was he taking?
    10. How did Charles Darwin earn money to pay for his daily-living during Beagle voyage, and after the voyage? < He could’ve received lots of black money (to last him for his life time) from the drunken sailors when the ship would dock in. >
    11. Charles Darwin kept a long beard throughout his adult life. It is a sign of him following Muslim Mohammed (Islam) and evil Baphomet.

  • How many years does it take for the evolutionists to go from 0 IQ to basic IQ?

    60 MILLION YEARS TO EVOLVE FROM A DUMB ROCK!

  • 3 FAKES:
    1908: Fake Piltdown Man by Evolutionists
    1958: Fake Ball-earth by NASA
    1962: Fake DNA

  • IF you think evolution is REAL, then

    why do you drink cow's milk which contains a slave animal's genes which go inside your body and will degenerate your genes, thereby reducing your chances of survival?

  • RED 🛑🛑🛑 ALERT

    ⚠️ P I L T D O W N M A N: it is still displayed in the museums even though it is a FRAUD!

    ⚠️ FAKES: Archaeoraptor bird + Haeckel’s embryos + Lucy fossil + Nebraska man + Piltdown Man.

    ⚠️ IN-BRED: Albert Einstein, Darwin and a few more.

  • Charles Darwin with his long beard looks like a follower of MOHAMMED / BAPHOMET.

  • I want to see real (authentic) photographs of DNA.

    Did you know that they don't exist? 🤤 🤤 🤤

  • Evolution is full of LIES.

    JUST SAY NO ⛔⛔⛔ to evolution!

  • We are told we are HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS (wise humans). It appears that not all of us are humans, and not all of us are wise!

    Example 1: Evolutionists claim to be hybrids (mixture of human and foreign DNA).

    Example 2: About 7 billion people have been brainwashed in ball-earth for about 60 years, in plain sight, and it is still happening.

    What does this phenomenon show us?

    We are not as intelligent as we're taught to believe; we are a lot dumber than we think we are.

    To think of ourselves as HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS is a baseless assumption!

  • I have been looking for organisms that cook food consistent with "gradual" transitions e.g. intermediate level of cooking expertise, burnt meals, etc. Sadly, no organism other than human is found to be cooking their meals.

  • Evolutionists drink cow's milk. It is not consistent with their belief in evolution because they are diluting their self-proclaimed superior pseudo genes with domesticated slave-animal's genes. Evolutionists’ belief in evolution and their practice of drinking cow's milk are not compatible!

  • Did anyone hear about the evolutionist that won a Noble Prize for finding AUTHENTIC transitional fossil?

    Sadly NO!

    Evolutionists are too busy either FAKING a fossil or proving a fossil to be FAKE. 🤣🤣🤣

  • Let's blow the evolutionists' brain one more time.

    Where the f u c k are the AUTHENTIC photographs of DNA?

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962 was awarded jointly to Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material."

    1962: Nobel prize; No photos!

    2019: No AUTHENTIC photographs of DNA!

    57 years have gone by! Still no AUTHENTIC photographs of DNA!

    FRom NOBEL PRIZE site:

    Recognizing DNA’s Voice

    Speed read

    Lying between your genes and you are molecular machines that allow the otherwise silent information wrapped-up in your DNA to speak.

    What is the first word? LYING!

    DNA is a LIE in plain sight!

  • 1. If a freshwater fish shape-shifts into a snow-leopard, will this transformation be called 'evolution?

    2. If a small organ shape-shifts into a larger sized organ, will this transformation be called 'evolution?

    3. If the body-parts remain the same generation after generations, is this an instance of evolution?

    4. Give an example of evolution (assuming it is real).

    NOTE: Evolutionists need not respond.

  • 33. Evolutionists cannot enlarge breasts naturally, considering breast implants have huge problems: A) Fake breast size B) Leaking breast implants C) Ongoing side effects.

  • It is pointless testing the IQ of evolutionists. They are abysmally stupid!

  • Q: Why did the creatard stick condoms in his ears?
    A: He didn’t want to get hearing AIDS

  • Q: Why did the creatard follow the stork?
    A: To see where babies come from

  • Q: Who benefits from creatards denying they’re related to apes?
    A: Apes

    Q: Why are creatards against nuclear fission?
    A: They think it means atom splitting up with Eve to go fission

  • Q: Why do creatards talk about Darwin more than “evolutionists”?
    A: Because creatard “science” is still in the 1800s.

  • Q: How many creatards does it take to screw in a lightbulb?
    A: None, creatards hate being enlightened.

  • Q: What did the creatard woman say when she heard she was pregnant?
    A: “I wonder if it’s mine.”

  • Q: Why are most creatards incels?
    A: They’re waiting for one of their ribs to be turned into a girlfriend

  • Kurzgesagt – In a nutsack

  • Jevil: I can do anything!
    Me: well, can you read the comments in Kurzgesagt's first video and not lose brain cells?
    Jevil: I can do almost anything!

  • Touhou difficulty levels:
    Ehhh? Easy modo? how LAME!
    Normal mode
    Hard mode
    Lunatic mode
    Ultra-Lunatic mode
    and the hardest:
    This Comments Section mode

  • 0:00 the legend is born

  • 4:07 i hate this noise

  • Me leaving area 51 with the Kurzgesagt video that doesnt cause an existential crisis

  • Here is some seriously BAD news:
    1) If you believe in ball-earth, you trust the entire ball-earth package (NASA, moon landings, ISS, school text books, ball-earth programming,…) then your sperm count is DOWN by 40%!
    Reasons: First, try to figure it out yourself by using your brain; else I will help you out.

  • 4:10 wrong! Haploid DNA still has two strains.

  • Evolutionists will tell you that you are a PRIMATE anywhere between 99.6% to 100%.

    In addition, you must ASSUME that you are a descendent of an APEOID.

  • evolution ffffffffaaaaaaakkkkkkkeeeee evolution ppl ssssssstttttttooooooopppppppiiiiiidddddd

  • What happen when two males homo have sex can they mix they DNA also?🤔🤔

  • BE QUIET. LISTEN. I heard it on the grapevine, so I will only say it once:

    ILLUMINATI, FREEMASONS, NASA, and HOLLYWOOD i.e. the club of evil ball-earthers are doing terrible things to babies and children!

  • BE QUIET. LISTEN. I heard it on the grapevine, so I will only say it once:

    "DNA is as FAKE as Piltdown Man faked by evolutionists! No scientific evidence of DNA".

  • Let's smoke & inhale some laughing gas @ demise of fake evolution.
    🤣🤣🤣

  • illuminati using cow milk so ppl drink n become slaves like cows!!! this is bio weapon!!!!

  • Can understand what darvin said,but still didnt get what holy textings are saying and what they want to prove… Fucking religionsts are mad when they gonna mutation..

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