Origin of Life – How Life Started on Earth

They’re dazzling, priceless… at times, even glowing. How can one not fall in love with rocks
and minerals? I mean, the colors, the shapes… …and they’re the
building blocks of modern civilization. We wouldn’t have televisions, we wouldn’t
have automobiles, we wouldn’t have buildings without the mineral riches
that we have. But could rocks and minerals also solve the greatest mystery
of all time? The origin of life. The rocks we pick up
tell a story that life couldn’t have occurred without rocks. Could cold,
lifeless stone hold the key to every living thing on Earth? From Australia, to Morocco, Nova goes around the world and back in
time to investigate the origin and evolution of life. Look at a rock and you think ah, well, nothing. but this holds the signature of life. From its first spark… People were saying
they’ve made Frankenstein in a test tube… …To the survival of the fittest. These were immense creatures. Sharks that
may have been 50 or 60 feet. Was it the secret link between rocks and
life that made the difference? Life’s rocky start. Right now, on Nova. The ancient market of Marrakech, a chaotic, colorful gathering place
teeming with life for thousands of years, the perfect place to ask how did this
exotic, beautiful and sometimes bizarre thing called life, begin? How did Earth go from a lifeless, molten
rock… to a living planet? Full of diverse and spectacular creatures. it’s a question that has long perplexed
scientists. Now, Robert Hazen, a geologist, is trying to
show we are missing an essential ingredient in the recipe for life. -look at that vein of calcite… Rocks. Nothing seems more lifeless than a rock. it’s inanimate, it’s the antithesis of a
living thing, but we’re beginning to realize that rocks played an absolutely
fundamental role in the origin of life. Hazen is out to expose a secret
relationship between rocks and life that helped drive both the origin of life and
its evolution into complex creatures. This is a very new set of understandings
and the more we look, the more we see that life depends on rocks, rocks depend
on life. This has been going on for four billion
years. As a geologist, it’s no surprise that Hazen is searching for answers
written in stone. But is he right? Are rocks the missing spark of life? The history of Earth is unimaginably
long. If it were sped up to the equivalent of
a single day, all of humankind from the earliest skeletons to the invention of
the iphone would have occurred in only the last four seconds. Dinosaurs were still roaming earth about
20 minutes before that, but the creation of our planet occurred
more than 23 hours earlier, two cycles on this clock or 4.5 billion years ago. Comprehending Earth’s vast history is a
formidable task. It is four and a half billion years of change, but you can
divide it into half a dozen ways of describing Earth through time. Bob Hazen has come up with another way
to visualize Earth’s long history that reveals this special relationship
between rocks and life. He has divided it into six stages, each
represented by a different color to understand how we ended up with green
earth, the planet we now know, requires us to turn the clock back to before there
was any life at all. Stage one was the creation of black
Earth. Back in Morocco, Hazen and Adam Aaronson, a
meteorite expert, seek out a small rock from the beginning of our cosmos. -Wow look at this pile here.
-yeah. These are meteorites. Rocks that have fallen from space. -This is Tamta. This is the one that fell
20 kilometers up the road from here. People saw it fall. A recent meteorite fall in Siberia was
captured in videos that have shown up on Youtube. Other space rocks have ended up
for sale here in Morocco. -Say you’d buy this without doing tests… -I’ll drop the
cash right now here and give me a good price. Meteorites here can sell for tens of thousands of dollars. That
may seem a steep price for a lump of rock, but these are some of the very
oldest objects in our solar system. This is the oldest object you could ever
hold in your hand. It’s 4.6 billion years old and is formed before Earth formed.
This is the very first solid material, the very first rock in our solar system
and these came together to build all the planets. Our Earth was created out of the rocks and
dust present at the start of our solar system. Over time, small fragments of orbiting
rock collided, coming together into the planet circling the Sun. At first, Earth was molten with
temperatures in the thousands of degrees, but in the cold vacuum of space this hot
rock began to cool and change. Nothing. Not a speck of dust is believed to have
survived from the period of black Earth. It was a hellishly unpleasant time. Volcanoes spewed hot lava from deep
inside the planet. When it cooled, it covered Earth with its
first rock called basalt and it was black. It seems like a desolate landscape, but
some ingredients that life will need are already here in these rocks. Look inside and you begin to understand
how intriguing even an ordinary rock is. Every rock, you slice it open you look inside, there’s something
special. Rocks are made up mostly of minerals, which are crystals like quartz or diamonds. Looking through a microscope at super thin slices of a rock lets you
see its mineral composition. This is the rock Peridotite, made up of
small crystals, including olivine and pyroxene. Even a simple black basalt rock,
spewed from a volcano, becomes a patchwork of colorful minerals. It’s sort of like a fruitcake, you know I
slice it open, there’s nuts and there’s dried fruit and maybe some lemon peel. It’s made of lots of little things
and it is not until you slice into that fruitcake that you see all the stuff inside that
makes it special. What makes them special is not only
their beauty. Minerals have remarkable chemical and physical properties and are
a source of many of the elements – nature’s building blocks. That is why they are essential in our
modern world to make everything from skyscrapers taller – mobile phones smaller. Extract the element molybdenum from the
mineral molybdenite to make steel stronger. Or add a pinch of cobalt and your iphone
battery will last longer. Minerals are the fundamental building
block of societies. We wouldn’t have televisions, we wouldn’t have automobiles,
we wouldn’t have buildings without the mineral riches that we have. So, were the remarkable chemical
properties of minerals also key in creating life? If so, Earth would mean more than it
started with It’s estimated that the meteorites that
formed Earth had only about 250 minerals, sort of a chemical starter kit,
containing many of the elements. Then, in the intense heat and pressures in the creation of our planet, new minerals began to form. This changed the appearance of our Earth from black to gray. Yosemite national park is a relatively
new piece of Earth, but the kind of rock that makes up these
dramatic cliffs goes back much further. These huge walls are granite containing
minerals like quartz and feldspar. Granite became the foundation of our
continents, leading Earth into the gray period. At this point, earth is still a long way
from the glorious diversity of plants and animals that makes Yosemite so
picturesque. But the stage is set for the next
character in our planet story: Water, which will turn Earth blue. Water
plays a central role in every model for the origin of life. That’s because water is such a great
solvent. All these different kinds of molecules can be floating around the
water and then they have the potential to interact together. The starting point is
the water. So when did Earth cool enough to have
liquid water, this element key to life? One of the biggest unknowns in this
whole idea of going from black to gray to a blue water-covered earth, is how
quickly it happened. The timing is a big mystery. The Pilbara in Western Australia is one
of the oldest places on Earth and so, one of the best places to solve
the mystery of the planet’s first oceans. Hazen joins an all-star team of
geologists, including Martin Van Kranendonk from the University of New South
Wales and John Valley of the University of Wisconsin. Valley is collecting rocks that could
hold clues to when water first appeared. We could get zircons and other
minerals that date all the way back to 4.4 billion years old. Hopefully. Some rocks here contain sand-sized
grains that wheathered from even older rocks. one in a million, literally, is a crystal
called zircon, one of the longest lasting materials in nature. Zircon is a popular gemstone, but the
microscopic zircon found here is even more precious. Zircon crystals are especially amazing. Gemstone zircons of course are valued, but these tiny ones the geologists value are microscopic that make a lousy ring, but they tell an incredible story. To tell that story, John Valley must
first find the tiny crystals, the ultimate needle in a haystack. If you want to find a needle in a
haystack, the first thing you do is you burn down the haystack. Then you sip through the ash to look for the needle. Rocks are pulverized into sand sized grains and sorted by weight in a machine developed to pan for gold. The gold that Valley is looking for are
heavy zircon crystals which get channeled into different tracks. Then, grain by grain, with a very steady
hand, thousands of small crystals are sorted
and analyzed. The chemical structure of a zircon crystal holds evidence of both the environment and the age when it formed. Some of these tiny crystals go very far
back, just over a hundred million years after
Earth formed. They are the oldest pieces of Earth ever discovered. So they could shed light on what our
young planet looked like. It’s totally amazing. To hold this
grain of sand in the palm of your hand is literally to see back through time. It is a time machine. Valley expected these crystal time
machines would confirm the long-held view that the young Earth was covered in
molten lava, still cooling after its violent formation. I think the zircon on the left looks
very promising. So what he discovered was shocking,
because this type of zircon created 4.3 billion years ago could only have formed
in the presence of liquid water. But how could there be water if Earth
was still hot and hell-like? The implications were that the early Earth
had water, it was cooler and it was wet. It’s starting to look very much more
familiar. And if water is a key starting point for
life could there be life that early too? The science of the zircon is telling us
that the Earth for a very, very long time was a habitable environment, not
necessarily that there was life then. We don’t know that yet, but there’s no
reason why there couldn’t have been life as early as 4.3 billion years ago. So, if life were possible that early, it
begs the question: how did life begin? In 1871, Charles Darwin speculated in a
letter to a friend that a warm little pond might be life’s birthplace. A warm soup of chemicals bathed by
energy from the Sun would have been, well, comfortable for molecules to come
together in new ways and create life. Darwin was way, way ahead of his time. A nice little warm soup is gonna get you
a long way. Jeff Boda of the Scripps Institution of
Oceanography in San Diego has spent his career working to understand the early
Earth’s soup of chemicals. He began under the direction of perhaps
the most famous scientist in origin of life research, Stanley Miller. There are in the history of science
turning points where we suddenly see the history of Earth and life differently. In
the early nineteen fifties, Stanley Miller, the eager graduate student, and
Harold Urey, the Nobel Prize winning mentor at the University of Chicago
conducted this astonishing experiment where they made an early Earth
environment. It looks like this sort of a
Frankenstein type apparatus, but actually it’s a very carefully thought out design.
Boda sets up a modern-day test of the nineteen fifties experiment on Miller’s
original lab equipment. One flask contains water. That’s to
simulate the ocean. The other flask has just got the gases in it,
so this is the atmosphere. Just as it does in nature, water from the
ocean evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, where it condenses and
returns to the ocean. Miller simulated what he believed to be
the atmosphere of early Earth with different gases like ammonia and methane. Then he added a spark of genius. Miller and Urey decided to use a spark
to simulate lightning, because that’s such a ubiquitous process in the
atmosphere of the Earth. That was the real inspiration. These
little electric sparks that acted like simulated lightning. The energy from the
spark of lightning breaks down the gas and water molecules so they can undergo further chemical reactions. To their astonishment, when they turn this apparatus on, after only a couple of days, you started seeing this pink color
developing. In a few more days, black oily goo is forming around the
electrodes. The electrodes get covered with new
substances. Organic compounds, usually associated with life. And it wasn’t just any organic compound. It was amino acids that make proteins, the ingredients for life. Amino acids are the building blocks of
life. They form proteins, which are the key
component of muscles and other tissues. People thought “aha!”. This is a key step in the origin of life. And you really believe that you can bring life to the dead? That body is not dead, it has never lived. I created it. The experiment raised a fear that a
Frankenstein creation, like in this classic film, was just around the corner. People were saying they had made
Frankenstein in a test tube. Had Miller and Urey cooked up life in a
test tube? many of the news headlines were saying “life created in the laboratory”, “life created in a test tube”. Of course, that was wrong. The real news was, he made these
compounds that are part of life. By creating amino acids, the Miller-Urey experiment seemed to confirm that Darwin was right. Life must have begun in a shallow pond. But then, 24 years later, a shocking discovery radically challenged that idea. On a dark ocean floor, more than a mile
below the surface, explorers found hot, mineral rich
hydrothermal vents, like underwater volcanoes. Temperatures reached more than 600
degrees and yet here, life was thriving. Not off the Sun’s
energy, but through chemical energy from the vents. No one realized that life could thrive
without sunlight. Here you have this extreme temperature and extreme pressure and so you have to shift your perceptions and realize that just
because it’s extreme to us doesn’t mean it’s extreme to those microbes. Instead of the warm shallow pond, could this dark and unlikely environment
be where life began? To answer that, Hazen decided to try creating life’s
building blocks in the conditions of a deep-sea vent. My first thought was “why don’t we
do a Miller-Urey experiment but do it at high temperature, high pressures?” Hazen’s laboratory is at the Carnegie Institution for Science, which is famous
for experiments that simulate the intense pressures deep inside Earth with
powerful tools called pressure bombs. They’re called bombs for a reason,
because things can explode. Hazen and his colleagues adapted these
pressure bombs to model the environment of the deep sea vents in a small gold
tube. What they discovered came as a surprise. Nothing happened. You can take basic
gases. Nitrogen, CO2, maybe some sulfur compounds, you can mix those, you can put them in a gold tube,
you can heat them up, you don’t get much much that is very interesting. Simply squeezing and heating the
ingredients had little effect. Hazen was missing the spark like in the
Miller-Urey experiment. The thing that kick-starts the chemistry. So he said, what’s going on?
What’s different? Well, look at the natural environment.
There is all these rocks and minerals. Let’s try putting some rocks and
minerals in. They recreate the early Earth cocktail,
but this time grind in powder from rocks and minerals. But will Hazen’s beloved rocks do the
trick? They run the experiment again. And this time, the atoms reform into new
organic molecules, including amino acids. As soon as you put powdered rocks and
minerals into the gold capsules then all sorts of really amazing things started
happening. You made organic molecules, they became
more stable, they lasted longer, and it really pointed us in the direction of “aha”,
this has got to be part of the story. While scientists still argue if life
began in shallow ponds or deep sea vents, both sides wonder what part of the story did rocks and minerals play? One possible answer may be found in
London in the powerful properties of mud. Most people will be familiar with
the material. It’s very gungy. That’s a British word that refers to something which is soft and unpleasant generally. Peter Coveney of University College, London is busy playing in mud at a very sophisticated
level. He has created powerful computer
simulations that can track the precise movement of up to 10 million atoms. Mud can contain clay, which is made up of
some of Earth’s most common minerals. What makes it so gungy, and perhaps
essential in the origin of life, can be seen deep in its atomic makeup. You can see
here the basic structure of any play is comprised of a large number of stacked
sheets like a deck of cards. Sheets of clay have spaces between them that fill
up with water and other molecules. These extensive surface areas can help
create more complex molecules, potentially even RNA, an essential part
of life’s genetic code One of the most challenging questions in
the origin of life is how we get from the simple building blocks to the
complicated structures we know are fundamental to living systems. Clays provide a clear mechanism for
achieving that. These simulations show that the secret
to clay lies in its surfaces. The surfaces of these minerals are
incredible. They do all sorts of chemical tricks. Hazen says minerals like clays
illustrate a fascinating aspect of chemistry, because the surface where
reactions take place can be as important as the ingredients themselves. The most exquisite chemistry occurs at surfaces Your body, your cells are almost entirely
surfaces on which chemistry takes place So when we think about the origin of
life, the minerals is where we place surfaces you have in your body that do that
chemical work. We are finally beginning to understand
the secret role minerals could have played in life’s origin. They provided some of the ingredients.
And surfaces, where important chemical reactions take place. So, when in Hazen’s color phases did all
this happen? One of the best places to figure that
out is back in Australia where Hazen and team are now searching for signs of
Earth’s earliest life. I can’t believe these rocks are three
and a half billion years old. They would maybe form last week. Martin Van Kranendonk leads the team
to a very unusual rock formation. You get your eye casting up. You see them all
wrinkly, laminated, black and then if you look a bit further back, you see a
very large domical structure. There is no obvious way that a chemical or physical
process would form that. Exactly. These strange shapes are fossilized
remnants of life, called stromatolites, beautifully preserved in these ancient
rocks. This is an amazing spot. We’re actually looking down on the
surface of the ancient Earth here. This was the seafloor 3.4 billion years
ago. I can see it in action, it is like a snap
frozen in an instant of time. But billions of years have taken their toll. To really understand stromatolites, we
have to go nearly 800 miles away. David Flannery, a geologist, has come to
Shark Bay in search of their very distant descendants. Just below the
surface, he finds a series of round, black
mounts – living stromatolites. Modern environments like these they’re very rare, but they are really the
key to interpreting what we see in the very early fossil record. Without environments like these,
we wouldn’t know how stromatolites were built. Stromatolites are
something like coral, a hard mineral structure that has been built, layer by
layer. A closer look reveals the builders: Microbes – single-celled life. The living part of a stromatolite is
only the surface. With a living microbial mat that is building up the
structure layer by layer, less than a millimeter per year. The top layer of these stromatolites is
alive with microbes that perform a remarkable trick. They capture minerals
and sand in the water and biologically cement them, layer by layer, into the
solid mounds. The results can be seen in Shark Bay
today and in the ancient fossils. Let me introduce you to this
outcrop. It’s just spectacular to be able to see this. And this outcrop
is unique. Van Kranendonk has dated this stromatolite to 3.5 billion years ago. This is the very oldest fossil of life
on Earth. We all want to know where we come from,
where life originated, how long ago in what form and this is the oldest direct
evidence we have for life on Earth. But while stromatolites are the earliest
fossil of life we’ve found that does not make them the very first living thing. In fact, Van Kranendonk thinks that by the time stromatolite appeared, life’s party
was already in full swing. There are whole communities and colonies that are
building fantastically complex structures. So, we’ve actually come in pretty late to
the game, there’s a lot that’s gone on before us to get to this stage. And it’s
this complexity that tells us that life probably originated on Earth very early. So if these very early fossils are too
complex to be the oldest form of life, is it possible to find something earlier? That is what Ruth Blake, a geologist at
Yale University, is trying to figure out. By turning to the geological equivalent
of a crime scene investigation. The crime has been committed, the
criminals gone, but they’ve left behind some indicators, because they’ve changed
their environment. Blake is analyzing some of the oldest
rocks on Earth, like this ground up one from Greenland that formed at the bottom
of an ocean She’s looking for a chemical signature
of life, left by microbes, including bacteria. What we start with is our ocean, trapped
in a rock, and our file signature is somewhere in here. We have to get it out. In the lab, Blake and her team dissolve these rocks and extract molecules that
are the chemical signature left behind by ancient microbes. Old life, like these microbes, consumes
nutrients to produce energy. The leftovers carry the chemical
footprint of life. Even today, we humans leave behind
chemical footprints. When we breathe, for example, we’re taking
in oxygen and we are exhaling CO2 and water vapor And water vapor interacts with your
environment. Amazingly, rocks from 3.5 billion years ago,
at the time of the stromatolites in Australia, also carry a strong chemical footprint
of life. But when Blake analyzes the Greenland
rocks from 300 million years earlier, she makes a tantalizing discovery. As far back as 3.5 billion years, we see
a strong biological signature and the older rocks are approaching that, but not
quite there, but we do believe that we see something there. Blake believes she has detected the faint
signal of life at 3.8 billion years ago, only 700 million years after Earth was
created, early in the blue phase. There is still much that we don’t know
about our early planet, but some things are becoming clearer. If you could transport yourself back in
time, about 4 billion years, parts of our earth
might not look too different than this Southern California beach minus the surfers
and Google. You could stand on cliffs, probably of granite,
overlooking oceans that were increasingly rich with minerals and early microbial life. But you would quickly die in a great deal of pain, suffocating in the heavy atmosphere,
rich in nitrogen and carbon dioxide, but lacking in life-giving free oxygen. Then, something truly astonishing
happened. Those harmless-looking microbes, floating
in the water or on stromatolites, started to change everything, turning
Earth red. Wow! Oh my god, this is amazing! There aren’t many places on Earth you can
see something like this. A remnant of red Earth can be seen in Australia at the
Hammersley Basin in Karijini national park. In these rocks, Hazen finds a
startling consequence of early life as it began to thrive and evolve. What we’re seeing here is one of the
greatest tricks that life ever figured out. And that was how to take sunlight and
convert it to energy. Microbes, like those in the stromatolites at Shark Bay, eventually began to live off the Sun’s energy through photosynthesis. That led to a dramatic rise in a gas
that Earth was not accustomed to. Oxygen. While to us, oxygen is a life-giving
benign gas, to a world not accustomed to it, oxygen created a dangerously corrosive cocktail. The early oceans were filled with dissolved iron. The new oxygen reacted with that iron and it began to rust and sank to the bottom of the sea. These little microbes they’re
microscopic things and you wouldn’t think they could do all that much, but when
they produce that oxygen, the oxygen reacts with the iron in the oceans. You
get the world’s largest deposits of iron, thousands of feet, covering hundreds of
square miles. these formations cover a vast area with
trillions of tons of iron ore. That is an unimaginable consequence of trillions
upon trillions of microbes breathing. it’s a fundamental change in the
chemistry of Earth. It’s the consequence of the rise of
oxygen. The rise in oxygen that rusted iron and sent Earth into the red phase also created many new minerals As a mineralogist, when I look at Earth’s
history, I see big transitions. I see the moon-forming impact, I see the formation
of oceans and so forth. Then nothing, nothing matches what life and oxygen did
to create new minerals. Some estimate that the meteorites that
formed Earth began with only about 250 minerals. Today, there are more than 5,000. Hazen believes that two-thirds of all
the minerals that now make up our planet, were created by the introduction of
oxygen and most of that was in turn created by life. It’s mind-boggling. Rocks create life,
life creates rocks, they’re intertwined in ways that are just now coming into
focus. But the road ahead for life and for
rocks would not be easy As we head into the next phase of Earth,
new continents formed and broke apart which may have created dramatic extremes
in the climate. Earth plunged into an icy freeze, turning it white. In these frozen conditions, life was
nearly wiped out. Fortunately, active volcanoes still
poke through the icy veneer, billowing out carbon dioxide, or CO2. Like a thermal blanket around our Earth,
this kept heat in and rescued life. Life all but shut down and then the CO2
rises and rises and the greenhouse effect gets hotter and hotter and suddenly the
planet melts. Cycles of these snowball hothouse conditions had profound consequences for life One result was more oxygen, which
eventually allowed for bigger animals The dramatic changes during white Earth
would bring us to the present phase, starting about 540 million years ago. A living planet. Filled with diverse plants and
spectacular creatures. But those life forms are pitted against
each other in a survival of the fittest. And rocks can make the difference
between life and death. That struggle can be seen back in Morocco at
the edge of the anti Atlas Mountains. Here, Bob Hazen and Adam Aaronsen are
looking for evidence of an evolutionary trick that shows, once again, how life and
rocks took a big leap forward together. 520 million years ago, this valley was a
shallow ocean, filled with new forms of life. This is when the diversity of life on
Earth exploded, all thriving in a living sea. So, if you were a scuba diver, and you dove
down to this reef, you’d see all kinds of life swimming around. It would be really amazing, probably very
colorful too. There is one creature that dominates
this ancient reef that Hazen wants to find. Nothing there, nothing there, and nothing there. Fossil hunting is a game of luck and
persistence but it doesn’t take long for Hazen to strike geologic gold. Whoa! Geez, look at that! That is amazing. The trilobite. Hey look,
there’s another head there, and a head there. Two more. Boy, this is rich rock. The trilobites here are amazing because these are the oldest animals that you can find. They’re preserved as what you think of as a fossil that you can hold in your hand. Some trilobites were like horseshoe crabs, scurrying about the ocean floor. The reason they are found as fossils
today, is because they developed an astonishing evolutionary trick: Shells. Trilobite shells were made of calcium
carbonate, the same mineral found in limestone, the rock that built the
pyramids. In effect, life itself began to make rocks
for its own advantage. And the idea went viral. If you had a shell, you’re gonna survive a
lot longer than that soft body animal that doesn’t have a shell. The trilobite had an advantage. It’s
survival of the fittest. The trilobites’ mineral shell heralded
a new phase in the evolution of animals, catapulting our planet into the present
stage: Green Earth. One that is rich in diverse life. From humans back to trilobites, we owe our evolution and survival to the
world of minerals. With shells, then eventually with bones and teeth that
paved the way for life to grow taller and stronger. All are evidence of life co-opting minerals for its own
evolutionary advantage. We’ve thought for centuries animals,
minerals, they’re separate kingdoms, right? But it turns out they overlap, they’re
intertwined, they co-evolved, that life makes minerals and minerals has led to
new life forms. You can’t separate the two. Life and rocks are totally intertwined
through billions of years of Earth history. One of Hazen’s favorite places to see
this intertwined history of life and minerals is at the Calvert cliffs
along the Chesapeake Bay He and his wife Margy pick up shells
and sharp teeth from a time 18 million years ago, when massive sea creatures
swam here. That’s nice. You find teeth
along the beach that are five, six, sometimes seven inches long with
serrated edges, razor-sharp teeth. These were immense creatures. Sharks that
may have been 50 or 60 feet long. These giants of the sea would have
dwarfed today’s great whites and it was the bones and teeth, created with minerals, that enabled them to grow so large and powerful. They were feeding on whales. Dolphins
would have been a snack. They are just one small part of a story
of coevolution, stretching back to Earth’s beginning. The life, the rocks. It’s all part of the
same story. Step by step throughout Earth’s
evolution, minerals and life have sparked chemical reactions that sculpted the
planet into what we see today. And helped create the life we know. At this place you get a sense of the immensity of time and the constancy of change. Life is creating and sculpting our surroundings in ways that are quite wonderful, and just to recognize the power of life
to transform a planet. Of course, humans transform the planet too. We
build cities, we build roads, we change the composition of the atmosphere and
change the composition of the oceans. There are going to be global changes. These changes, whose consequences are now beginning to unfold, are the latest chapter in Earth’s epic
story. A story that began four and a half billion years ago with a rock.

Comments 100

  • My Dunning Kruger mental disorder along with my religion makes me have delusions.
    My invisible nameless sorcerer in the sky (the life before there was life, who created life) used his paradox magic to make me in his image.
    All Hail the nameless sorcerer creator of unicorns🦄 puppy dogs 🐺 and cancer.

  • I infer an intelligent origin (because I have no evidence, but I make up for in in delusions and spam)
    I personally copied and re-pasted that from the Discovery Institute so I know it's true.

  • The Discoverrhoids can't find any available evidence for the prebiotic life that created the first life, mmm… once again they're flummoxed by the English language. Unavailable and nonexistent looks a tad like the same thing, nothing.

  • I don't know if I'm willing to take Christians at their word that Mycoplasma pneumoniae was deliberately planned, guided and designed to infect monkey lungs and I certainly wouldn't describe it as the work of INTELLIGENCE. Behe suggests the design is Satanic, FUTILE forcefully insists that its "malevolent" while sane people, religious and nonreligious, understand that bacteria nor any other form of life is designed at all.

  • "My evidence, processes, mechanisms, methods, explanations, equations, hypotheses and creation stories are unavailable at the moment… please hold, we're still working on it!" The Discoverrhoids should get back to us when they finally force out something solid, material, physical and testable.

  • The 'watchmaker' analogy only fails since a watch does not function as does the Earth or the Solar System. The only recognized source of systems featuring powered integration of copying, storing, copying, error correction, proofreading, transcribing, editing, transmitting, and decoding of digital information is INTELLIGENCE. Both computers and eukaryotic cells fit that description.

  • ok some white dudes gonna explain to us how life started on earth , this gonna be funny at best !!!!!!

  • Lets stat a wager… do scientists create life / find another example of biogenesis on earth or do we find evidence of alien life first ???? Come on its bio-generators vs pan-spermiars…..

  • well, I guess you'll all find out soon enough when you die……good luck.

  • 💧💧💧. 🌠. 👽. 🦕. 🐉. 🌠. 🐒

  • @ Gary Bell : "All hypotheses for life's origins are abiogenesis or abiogenesis…" LOL! And they're all 100% DEAD ENDS!

  • jebstuart "The information originated in a PURELY physical reality." Bullshit. Then measure that 'reality' for me, the SOURCE of that information, in actual units of physical reality, Stuart.

  • ”Constructing the molecules necessary for life from their prebiotic precursors represents one goal of OOL research; putting them together, another. Some of synthetic chemistry is pedestrian, and some ingenious. Fundamental questions remain unaddressed. Claims that these structures could be prepared under prebiotic conditions in high enantiomeric purity using inorganic templates, or any presumed templates, have never been realized. The carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, and other compounds within each of these classes require specific methods in order to control their regiochemistry and stereochemistry. The differences in reaction rates often require chiral systems acting upon chiral molecules. If this were possible under prebiotic conditions, it is odd that it cannot be replicated by synthetic chemists. They have, after all, had 67 years to try.”
    – James Tour

  • Gary Bell: “By using my physical neurons to produce electrical impulses to decide what information I'll post.”
    ME: “What, then, is this "YOU" that's using your physical neurons, dummy?”
    Gary Bell: “Yep, neurons are physical material using 100% natural energy sources…”
    ME: “And what matter and energy are YOU made of, the YOU that's self aware, solves problems, and makes free will decisions?”
    Gary Bell: “I’m a willfully ignorant materialist and I’m TERRIFIED of that question.”

  • ”We do our best to perform experiments that we believe re-enact possible steps of prebiotic evolution, but we know that *we need to intervene manually to obtain meaningful results.* Simply mixing chemicals and watching for a living system to appear from the broth seems unreasonable to me. This approach has never worked, and it is not expected to work, at least not if one is limited to the lifetime of a human, let alone the duration of a funding period or a Ph.D. thesis.” Richert, C. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07219-5

  • Gary Bell: “Just visit the DI events page and wave your futile hands at most DI talks being done in churches…”
    ME: “Just post a link to even one video taken at one of these churches where an ID lecturer overtly appeals to a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis for the origin of life on Earth, nincompoop Bell.”
    Gary Bell: “What do you think "the events page" lists? It's churches, the bible, the Book of Genesis and your god Yahweh.”
    ME: Incorrect, Bell. Every single video taken in these churches are utterly devoid of any instances of appeal to Genesis as an explanation for life's origins. Sadly for you, the fact is that these lectures are repudiating the literal interpretation of Genesis and persuading the attendees to reject Genesis.

  • Why don't we examine the EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE? The oldest evidence for life is over 4.1 billion years ago. Zircons from Jack Hills, Australia have been reliably dated to 4.1 billion years ago, and graphite inclusions, thought to be much older still, feature an isotopic fractionation of C12/C13 pointing directly to photosynthesizing life: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151019154153.htm
    The only way that photosynthesis has ever been observed to function in living systems requires:
    1) a genome featuring DNA;
    2) ATP energy driven molecular machines such as ribosomes, ATP synthase, and DNA polymerase;
    3) integrated systems of digital information processing;
    4) an integrated Genetic Code;
    5) numerous catalytic enzymes;
    6) a cell membrane embedded with protein enzymes;

  • The EXPERT on OOL- Watch Chuck Missler from Koinonia Institute – elegant talk about how it all  happened. 'Brilliant' , 'exceptional' , 'life changer',  loved by those with enquiring minds /  and high IQ / !!!  Do not miss this once in a life opportunity .

  • The Search for the Earliest Life
    In case you miss the point ,nobody is searching for any inference of any undefined intelligence ( ID code word for the Christian God)…

  • For real science from a professional : https://youtu.be/zU7Lww-sBPg

  • Rocks are deffirent from life,even the flesh,why those newly dead they still those substances that said to be the compossition of life?why they dont have life?flesh is not a life itself,flesh was just a shelter of life.

  • ​@ Bjeh King : "NO Experimental evidence from YOU demonstrates that the cell is a paragon that was poofed into existence by design." Incorrect! The experimental evidence for DIPS in living cells allows for the rational inference of its intelligent primordial origin.

  • @​ Mitch Goodfellow ​: So you start with this assertion: "…due to the fact it suggests the emergence of a first living cell sequentially…An impossibility according to J Tour…

    But then you shoot yourself in the foot with: "It is by far more probable the first living cells arose from a multitude of various proto-cells…"

    And your life from 'various protocells' absolutely requires the exact SEQUENTIAL PROCESS you know is already impossible.

  • no scientist on earth really knows how life started. All they can rely on is theories with scientific facts surrounding it

  • What are these comments

  • @ Gary Bell : "All hypotheses for life's origins are abiogenesis or abiogenesis…" LOL! And they're all 100% DEAD ENDS!

  • SOCK PUPPET WARNING!! – this 'RESISTANCE IS FUTILE' is just one of 28 other sock accounts created by this user.

    Just go to "Bill Nye: Creationism Is Not Appropriate For Children" and "Let's Test Them: Evolution vs Creationism" videos to witness the other 27 accounts spam the same old nonsense she spews in this comment section.

  • Allah knows best about this….we must have a Protector over us.. He is independent…Allah SubhanAllah wa Ta.Alla

  • At the origin of life some 4 billion years ago, for the first cell to have had the capacity to be alive, to metabolize, to divide – it had to possess the ability to store, copy, transcribe, edit, transmit, and decode its digital genomic information. And it needed to solve problems associated with energy sourcing, metabolism, and reproduction by the use of numerous energy driven molecular machines. The origin of these DEMAND AN EXPLANATION.

  • ME: "If I'm 'wrong,' Goodfellow, then you should be able to post a link to papers that demonstrate the plausible prebiotic synthesis of a living, metabolizing, dividing cell. Reality is on my side, Goodfellow! No such papers exist."
    Goodfellow: "Yep."

  • I infer an intelligent origin for the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell on Earth from the experimental evidence which demonstrates DIPS (integrated digital information processing systems) in living cells, and from the problem solving capacities of EDMM (energy driven molecular machines) shown to exist in the cell. I cannot, however, use that evidence to infer the identity, methods, or intentions of that intelligence. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of digital information processing. It also demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of integrated energy powered machines.

    The design and implementation of these features that were necessary in the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell inexorably trace to an intelligent mind. No Bible needed, no magical appeal to blind prebiotic chemistry.

  • Mind comes before matter.
    The intelligence of melanin is a chemical called a Benzine Ring. Amino acids were found in meteorites.
    When a Benzine ring bonds with an amino acid, you get melanin.
    Intelligence came to earth.
    Your welcome 😏

  • It would appear that every single materialist on this comments section lives in a self-imposed fantasy world where every single person who disagrees with them on their fairy tale the subject of abiogenesis is a fundamentalist Christian.
    What a load. 😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • So much trouble u guyz took .life alwyz existed its all abt transmigration. Nothing else. There is nothing like creation or time. Get dat straight !!! Fr tnt west Indies

  • So you get one scientist, Ben Pearce (McMaster University, Hamilton) who argues for abiogenesis using nucleobases delivered by meteorites during the 'heavy bombardment era' in Hadean Earth. But then you get another scientist, chemist John Sutherland (University College, London) who soundly refutes Pearce by arguing that organic compounds carried in meteorites would not necessarily survive the impact.
    Sutherland told New Scientist recently that, “Large impactors that would have delivered the most organic material, collide with such energy that their organic cargo is atomised." The other problem is that Pearce simulated the wrong chemical process, Sutherland says. Pearce assumed that the first step in making RNA is linking together smaller molecules called nucleobases and ribose, but this “was experimentally shown not to work ages ago”, says Sutherland.

  • "My evidence, processes, mechanisms, methods, explanations, equations, hypotheses and creation stories are unavailable at the moment… please hold, we're still working on it!" The ORIGIN OF LIFE SCIENTISTS should get back to us when they finally force out something LIVING, METABOLIZING, AND DIVIDING.

  • @ Mitch Goodfellow : "first of all not a such thing as " MY imaginary protocells" 😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • @ Gary Bell : "All hypotheses for life's origins are abiogenesis or abiogenesis…" LOL! And they're all 100% DEAD ENDS!
    You can have them, Bell. They're as hopeless as they are helpless!

  • @ Gary Bell : You need constant reminding that there is 0.000% evidence for a natural origin of DIPS and EDMM.
    They rationally trace back ONLY to intelligence.

  • Biochemistry is all about multistep synthetic chemical pathways. “In the cell, the individual steps of a biosynthetic pathway are usually catalyzed by different enzymes. Each enzyme creates a specific microenvironment for a reaction in its active site. For potentially prebiotic, enzyme-free multistep syntheses, a chemical work-up at the end of a reaction is often required, involving steps such as precipitation, crystallization or other forms of handling and purification, and an often drastic change in chemical conditions from one synthetic transformation to the next.” – C. Richert DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07219-5

  • "My evidence, processes, mechanisms, methods, explanations, equations, hypotheses and creation stories are unavailable at the moment… please hold, we're still working on it!" The Discoverrhoids should get back to us when they finally force out something solid, material, physical and testable.

  • It's obvious that Christians are very upset to know that they've been lied to for 16 centuries and they're demanding an explanation. So when do they think the Discoverrhoid bibiel literalists will explain life's origins? We know their intentions are to replace science with mythology, we know their identity is Yahweh imagined by the ancient Hebrews so are they still working on it or are they just going to keep taking the bibles word for it?

  • Only a crazy person would insist that we take their word for it that "life created the first life" which is oxymoronic and impossible. One thing we know for certain is that life in our universe is an emergent property, that's as obvious as the sky is blue.

  • So, scientists finally come to the same biblical or Koranic revelation of six days of creation of earth.

  • God created everything

  • Nothing can't create everything

  • BELL demands that we take his word for it that 🔮 magical 🦄 prebiotic 🧪chemistry 💥 poofed the first living, metabolizing, dividing 🦠cell.

  • @ Mitch Goodfellow : If I'm wrong and the cell's DIPS and EDMM aren't rationally traced back only to intelligence, then please provide your rational alternative.

  • @ bob niblitt : " Basically their false dichotomy is a camouflage tactic to cover the fact that there is no science to explain how life started, just a bunch of hypotheses." …and every last one of those hypotheses are DEAD ENDS, let's not forget!

  • "My evidence, processes, mechanisms, methods, explanations, equations, hypotheses and creation stories are unavailable at the moment… please hold, we're still working on it!" OOL INVESTIGATORS should get back to us when they finally force out something living, metabolizing, and dividing out of solid, material, physical and simple prebiotic chemistry.

  • @ Mitch Goodfellow : "first of all not a such thing as " MY imaginary protocells" 😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • I am a big fan of nature and discovery , but why can't we believe we are created. We always postulate this is how things are, we are evolved without reason.

  • @ Paul Millbank : "My mind is very much natural…" Nonsense! Natural things are all reducible to matter and energy, to a combination of chance and necessity. They obey natural laws and principles. So let's say you use your mind and think about the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, or pi. You also picture the Greek letter 𝜫 in your mind. Now demonstrate how 𝜫 can be reducible to matter and energy, and how the decision to think about 𝜫 came about through natural chance and necessity, Millbank.

  • Bell: “Isn't a matterless brain just mindless nothingness?”
    ME: 85% of the entire freakin' universe is not made up of atoms, twit. See also DARK MATTER. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24432560-600-why-dark-matters-no-show-could-mean-a-big-bang-rethink/?utm_source=NSNEW&utm_campaign=7b74dd2dcd-NSNEW_2019_11_08_11_10_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e65fab71ff-7b74dd2dcd-&utm_source=NSNEW&utm_campaign=7ef3f91dd7-NSNEW_2019_11_08_11_10_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e65fab71ff-7ef3f91dd7-377722359

  • Read this article

  • And also this link will help you understand the life


  • ""Something in nature; an eye; a biochemical pathway or a cosmic constant is too improbable to have come about by chance, therefore it must have been designed, just as a watch demands a watchmaker" – screech the desperately disingenuous, lying creationists ID advocates. As an amazing coincidence, the watchmaker just so happens to be the pathetic presupposition of their own intelligent designer Christian God/Yahweh/Allah (insert preferred deity here) or whichever deity pervaded their particular childhood. This is a lousy argument which was comprehensively DEBUNKED in Hume's time". – Richard Dawkins

  • "I'm presenting an inference of some kind of intelligent causality" – 28FutileSocks
    "Who or what created this so-called "intelligence" or was it just poofed into existence by magic?" – Yoda
    "[silence..crickets..tumbleweeds..etc..]" – 28FutileSocks
    "🤣…etc…" – All sensible YouTubers.

  • DNA structure – 1. over 3 000 000 000 nucleotides' long double spiral script   2. wrapped over 'scaffolding' proteins / histones / with regulatory side chain epigenetic functions   3. packaged/unpackaged tightly by chaperone proteins.   Transcription and translation require complex multiple proteins/enzymes functioning on the principle of exact match / receptor-ligand bonds/. NO DNA – NO PROTEINS  AND  NO PROTEINS- NO DNA !   BOTH COME IN THE SAME PARCEL AT THE SAME TIME  !!!  Liuetenant Kenda from Colorado Springs PD with closure of 387 homicide cases will tell you –    no logic – no criminals in jail . Above case LOGIC  –  DNA & proteins are inseperable !!!

  • @ Mitch Goodfellow : "Whatever a mind expresses is only possible because of the energy and material circuitry of a brain." You will now write down the physicochemical formulae, data, and equations which your brain used to make you type this nonsense into the comment box, Goodfellow.

  • Mitch Goodfellow "Then let me cut off your head…Then see if you can still find your mind somewhere….to write any equations!" Violent little troll you are!

  • At the origin of life, these hapless materialists need to show how you could get simple prebiotic chemistry to spontaneously synthesize DNA double helix polymers with coded information for the synthesis of proteins without numerous proteins enzymes needed to synthesize this DNA IN THE FIRST PLACE.
    It's called a chicken 🐔 and egg 🥚 paradox, an unsolvable 😯 conundrum! 😨

  • @ Scientist Stupid Flanders : "You keep forgetting that this is YouTube, and not academia, little troll." No, that has to do with a You Tuber's qualifications and the ludicrous requirement for them to publish their position in a science journal, silly yellow sock puppet, and NOT with simple internet access that Goodfellow can use to access the physicochemical formulae, data, and equations his your brain used to make him type his nonsense into the comment box. Duh.

  • @ Yoda : "Sorry Ian, we're not interested in medieval fiction/mythology."
    But you're interested in this contemporary fiction/mythology: ABIOGENESIS.
    😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • Life came from God…
    The Earth is FLAT!!!

  • In psychiatry there is the JERUSALEM SYNDROME, that is humble Christans on their 1st visit to Jerusalem, take the podium and start preaching and prophesying / personality change ! I could suggest a new MH nomeclature – Syndrome of the Noble [email protected], that is very hard working, highly intelligent individuals / not Asperger's syndrome/, who achieve a breakthrough in a field of science / and $1 000 000 award / think of themselves as 'God' / I all know attitude /, Like Harrold Urrey, a former Russian Emporors' subjects, descendant, welcomed in his adopting Great Nation of the USA, major contributor to the war effort in 1945 to defeat Nazie Germany with the Manhatton Project and then ……well the Nobel Laureate Syndrome. And what about W Swostak ? Well, my very humble advice/ but who careS of my advice/ is -enjoy the fame, and money, and glory, do not indulge in the invinsible and untestable ! Your God given intellect may be put to a better use. . This deliberation is purely my own, and nothing but my own opinion ! Thanks Lord, we can still express our personal views, without receiving a one way ticket to Siberia / that is to cool down / !

  • Psuedo Science tries so hard..

  • "My evidence, processes, mechanisms, methods, explanations, equations, hypotheses and creation stories are unavailable at the moment… please hold, we're still working on it!" OOL INVESTIGATORS should get back to us when they finally force out something living, metabolizing, and dividing out of solid, material, physical and simple prebiotic chemistry.

  • “This type of single-run experiment has worked well for simple processes, such as…the Miller volcanic spark experiment that produces simple biomolecules. For experiments aimed at demonstrating chemically more complex processes, such as multistep syntheses mimicking biochemical pathways or genetic replication, repeated interventions by the experimentalist have been necessary. Each step needs a specific chemical environment or set of conditions to occur in high yield. For example, an elimination reaction needs other conditions than an addition reaction, and assuming that both will occur simultaneously in the same solution is unrealistic.”
    DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07219-5 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications

  • @Paul Millbank : "My mind is very much natural…" Nonsense! Natural things are all reducible to matter and energy, to a combination of chance and necessity. They obey natural laws and principles. So let's say you use your mind and you decide to think about the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, or pi. You also close your eyes and picture the Greek letter 𝜫 in your mind.
    Now demonstrate how 𝜫 can be reducible to matter and energy, and how the decision to think about 𝜫 came about through natural chance and necessity, Millbank.

  • 'Emergence' is merely descriptive, it actually doesn't explain anything. It's like exclaiming, "the sky is blue" without having a clue as to actually why it IS that colour…
    …and not some other colour.

  • Always cute to see how materialists blithely –lie- claim that abiogenesis ‘happened’ in the complete absence of them disclosing the requisite synthetic chemical pathway necessary to actually demonstrate that it happened: ”Life arose on the young Earth as a natural chemical process. More than half a century of experimental research has underscored the dynamic interactions of atmosphere, oceans, and rocks that fostered this ancient transition from geochemistry to biochemistry.”
    https://hazen.carnegiescience.edu/sites/default/files/186-ElementsIntro.pdf (…yes, the same Robert Hazen that blunders along in this video)

  • what a load of BS

  • "Possible candidates for the role of designers include: the god of Christianity (Yahweh); an angel – fallen or not (Satan); Plato's demi-urge (Greek pantheon); some mystical new age force (woowoo); space aliens from Alpha Centauri (Mork and abiogenesis); or some utterly unknown intelligent being (pigs, dolphins or monkeys)." ~ Michael Behe (bible literalist) frantically waving his hands at any damn straw that's clutchable.

  • "Mind comes before matter." ~ Bible literalist. "Isn't a matterless brain just mindless nothingness?" ~ Logical rationalist.

    "85% of the entire freakin' universe is not made up of atoms, twit. See also DARK MATTER." ~ FUTILE Haw haw WTF has that got to do with imaginary minds?

    FUTILE has discovered in her imagination what Dark Matter isn't and it isn't matter at all, will she rename it Dark Ectoplasm? The collective science world holds its breath.

  • Abiogenesis supporters need to be reminded that if you dismiss all other explanations but your own, yet have no evidence to back it up, and are left to imagine how your explanation nevertheless accounts for the phenomenon, you're making an ARGUMENT FROM INCREDULITY!

  • Her: What is your educational qualification ?

    Peter: I hold 5 degrees in chemistry.

    Her: Wow that’s awesome. What do you do at work?

    Peter: Err 26:54

  • Just when I thought I started in CUM. and then watching this is mind boggling.

  • Seems to me that volcanoes were more important to life. Where's the doc on that?

  • There is no mystery about the origin of life on Earth. Allah (swt) has said in Quran Syrah Hashr. He ( The Allah swt) is the Creator, the Inventor, the Shape giver, so all the praises to Him. Who created so beautiful this world for us.

  • Abiogenesis is a symptom of 🌈 MAGICAL THINKING. 🦄

  • You will now provide an example of emergence from 3.5+ billion years ago that I need to refute, Bell.

  • Whatever happened to Magnus Carlsen, Dragon Slayer, Wolf 1.0, Hydrogen Peroxide, Cerebral Independence, The Terminator, Nuclear Fallout, Necromomger Nation and her other 20 sock accounts? Looks like they've abandoned the dead-end known as creationism intelligent design!
    😆 LOLOLOL!! 🤣

  • Both computers and cells deal with highly non-random, digital information, and the higher order processing of this prescribed information serves the purpose of achieving functional ends as intended by intelligence. Electrons can be manipulated in very complex ways by natural forces of electromagnetism, but when electrons and magnetic components in a computer begin to copy, error correct, proof read, transcribe, edit, transmit, and decode specified digital information, it is axiomatic that intelligent agency is at work, responsible for the behaviour of the electrons in that computer. And the application of that model to the experimentally known modes of digital information processing in the prokaryotic cell compels the confirmation of intelligent agency as the primordial origin of the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell.

  • Regardless if the face is green (Yoda), yellow (Scientist Flanders) or blue (Bluebottle 99), they're all sock puppets of the same hapless materialist, one of my favourite chew toys.

  • Sadly for you, hapless materialists, the cell's digital genomic data are cybernetically processed through:
    1) storage, 2) error correction, 3) proof reading, 4) transcribing, 5) editing, 6) transmission, and 7) decoding.
    You will now show how these integrated networks of digital information processing are supposedly of 'natural' origin, please & thank-you.

  • https://youtu.be/JiMqzN_YSXU

    Please watch.i am not religious myself but question everything.still i believe in creator.its way too complex than in this videos.

  • @Gary Bell “Michael Behe (bible literalist) frantically waving his hands at any damn straw that's clutchable.” How comical that you think that Michael Behe is a 'bible literalist,' now where are even a handful of bible quotes he habitually, supposedly uses, to serve as explanations for life's origins? Hmm?

  • @Paul Millbank : "My mind is very much natural…" Nonsense! Natural things are all reducible to matter and energy, to a combination of chance and necessity. They obey natural laws and principles. So let's say you use your mind and you decide to think about the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, or pi. You also close your eyes and picture the Greek letter 𝝅 in your mind.
    Now demonstrate how 𝝅 can be reducible to matter and energy, and how the decision to think about 𝝅 came about through natural chance and necessity, Millbank.

  • Earth so much perfect for life.many people calim there can be many other earths yet we still failed to know if there is any single sign of microbe on any other planet close to earth.lol

  • In the beginning God created heavens and the earth
    And earth was without form and darkness was on the face of the Earth
    And spirit of God was hovering on the waters of the deep
    And God said let there be light

    We all know by looking around and inside of us that there is a creator there is someone who has made this

  • https://youtu.be/W1_KEVaCyaA

  • Shouldn't there be life on every planet if gods create life? The fact that life is rare and reliant on natural conditions shows that life isn't created. To think that gods are slaves to goldilocks zones, electromagnetic fields, moons and comet strikes is ridiculous.

  • "because I came here first" – Miss28FutileSocks 🤣 LOLOLOL 🤣

  • @ Yoda : "Sorry Ian, we're not interested in medieval fiction/mythology."

    But you're interested in this contemporary fiction/mythology: ABIOGENESIS.

    😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • @ Enlightened : "life isn’t necessarily cellular" In a prebiotic context, this speculative little slogan is meaningless, because NO MATTER HOW MANY IMAGINARY PROTOCELLS OR PRECURSORS YOU PARADE DOWN PREBIOTIC AVENUE, YOU MUST INVARIABLY CONVERGE ON A LIVING, METABOLIZING, DIVIDING CELL with a fully functional Genetic Code featuring DNA, mRNA, ribosomes, aaRS, ATP, ATP synthase, numerous highly specified catalytic protein enzymes, and a phospholipid bilayer membrane with numerous embedded protein enzymes controlling cellular ingress and egress.

  • I'm agnostic but this is pure foolishness. We have NO IDEA how life started on earth. And people say religious individuals are arrogant?? I can't think of more arrogant statement made by a scientist (and I HATE religion)

  • @ Bluebottle 99 : "I suppose natural phenomenon would seem like a "miracle"/"magic"…" No, you have it backwards.
    It remains a "miracle" or "magic" since you have zero ability to explain the OOL as a natural phenomenon!

  • ”When Diego Maradona was asked about having used his hand to score a goal in the quarterfinals of the 1986 soccer World Cup, he initially claimed that there had been divine intervention, and the term “Hand of God Goal” was coined. There had been manual intervention, and there had been an understandable interest of the player not to admit it. Organic chemists, if not all experimentalists in the field of prebiotic chemistry, are faced with a similar dilemma.”
    [DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07219-5]

  • Abiogenesis, an explanation of life's origins since never.

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