UNEP SAY OZON LAYER antarctica hole/pitting for CFC or HCFC?


I have heard of a world where we live in the shadows undercover constantly in hiding a world where we seek shelter from the Sun the very same Sun without which life on earth would not exist a world where we are unceasingly seeking protection for our skin our eyes where skin cancer spreads the human immune system weakens marine life slowly parishes livestock is damaged plants and crops deteriorate thankfully our earth has a natural shield to protect it from such a scenario that shield is the ozone layer it extends over the entire globe high up in the atmosphere it filters the sun’s ultraviolet radiation a carefully balanced act researchers discovered in the mid-nineteen seventies that apparently our refrigerators air conditioners aerosol cans firefighting equipment and some solvents and pesticides could potentially damage the ozone layer shortly after that the extent of the damage was revealed it was happening over Antarctica a discovery that would trigger unprecedented global action for the protection of our environment that was over 25 years ago how does a whole just appear in the atmosphere I’ve decided to find out for myself my search for answers will lead me to the scientists closest to the issue who discovered the whole and those who’ve been studying it ever since first stop cambridge in the UK the british antarctic survey has been monitoring ozone levels since the nineteen fifties Jonathan shanklin was one of the first to notice that something wasn’t right when we made our discovery i was gonna then monitored from the Antarctic for nearly 30 years that we had a whole stack of hundreds sheets where the basic numbers and instrument have been written down but they hadn’t been processed to get those own amount and so is a young graduate always given the task of supervising all this coming up with a the answers what I did was pulled out they the lowest 11-day running main value each Antarctic spring I was only level simply falling off the charts and at that point the other members of the team Joe farming and brian gardner came up with the paper that was published in nature and showed something really strange was going on over Antarctica the ground measurements showed that every year the spring total ozone levels would dramatically fall over Antarctica as my travels we need to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center I learned that this disturbing trend was also being confirmed by observations from above it was shortly after that the first pictures of the Antarctic ozone hole came out from the satellite data remember that a ground station just looks up and sees one spot on the earth for the satellite gives you a global picture of total ozone and that’s where the name ozone hole comes from look like a whole had been punched through the ozone layer in retrospect that was a really good thing to calm it because an always-on whole must be bad almost automatically it meant that people wanted something doing about it the whole have to be filled in ozone has a natural regulation process that something was throwing it off balance our use of certain chemicals most notably chlorofluorocarbons and Halen’s chlorofluorocarbon is a very non reactive gas and you can breathe it and it doesn’t affect you at all but when you release this gas it gets fairly well mixed in the lower atmosphere and then it leaks into the stratosphere and these chlorofluorocarbons get above the ozone layer actually they get broken down by that intense solar radiation that’s over beyond the ozone layer now once they do that they free a chlorine atom and the chlorine atom engages in a little catalytic reaction it will react with ozone and then it will react with another oxygen at to regenerate itself back to chlorine so one chlorine molecule a little cycle can destroy thousands of ozone molecules if ozone-depleting chemicals were being released all around the world why was there so much chemical destruction of ozone happening over Antarctica during winter the stratosphere in the polar region is very cold and so temperature can reach about minus eighty degrees and in these conditions clouds are form they are called the Polish was very clouds and on the surface of these clouds there are chemical reactions that converts chlorine compounds very efficient compounds that the air cools as it cools it sinks as it sinks it begins to spin and this sets up what’s called the polar vortex stopping exchange with the outside and turning the center Antarctica into a giant cooking pot where all the chemistry takes place that destroys the ozone we certainly thought that the discovery would shake it up a lot of groups up it’s being called an unprecedented display of international cooperation to protect the world environment the Montreal Protocol signed today aims at stopping the deterioration of the ozone layer in the atmosphere the montreal protocol was really a a landmark agreement it really required a scientific foundation that is you had to have solid science that formed the basis of the montreal protocol and then that fed upward to policymakers government policymakers politicians industry ppl technologists how if you got rid of chlorofluorocarbons how did you substitute for those chlorofluorocarbons all those groups came together and in 1987 they negotiated the Montreal Protocol is quite amazing that every single one of the UN member states has signed up to the treaty and is walking by the mid-nineteen ninety’s the production in developed countries of these ozone-depleting substances had been largely stopped and now even in developing countries chlorofluorocarbons are no longer produced in their place transitional substitutes have been introduced these being revised periodically following scientific and technological assessments many groups around the world have been following the protocol success amongst them the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in boulder colorado you can very clearly in the measurements that actions that the Montreal Protocol have reduce the emissions of audiences and also you can actually see the change in the concentration of audiences in the lower atmosphere as well as in the stratosphere deals on a year now has stabilized it doesn’t decrease anymore but we’re still waiting for the evidence was on to increase to previous level so we still have to enforce the Montreal Protocol mainly because of the very large lifetime of these gases we did a study here in which we looked at what would have happened if chlorofluorocarbons just kept increasing steadily with time so as we win from 1960 into the future chlorine was going up and up and up now what if chlorine wasn’t regulated that the Montreal Protocol did not occur chlorine would have kept going up and ozone would have kept heading down and down and down and so by the time you got out here to 2065 two-thirds of the ozone layer is gone now what that means is it means a couple of things first of all because you have no ozone above you you have lots of the solar ultraviolet radiation that can penetrate to the Earth’s surface you get sunburned very fast and very severe sunburns in some cases skin cancer cases would go up cataracts I cataracts would increase and as crops failed crop prices would increase this would probably lead to political instability there would have been many many unfortunate effects of large ozone depletion and so the montreal protocol has had a dramatic effect on saving us from that world we think that the chlorofluorocarbons would be decreased to sufficiently low level that doors on hole would be disappearing towards the end of this century we need to take care of our atmosphere and the Montreal Protocol shows us the way to go this is something that is working and equally amazingly the module protocol is done a huge amount to come back combat climate change always own depleting substances like chlorofluorocarbons are also powerful greenhouse gases so what that means is that when we regulated chlorofluorocarbons ozone-depleting substances you have a dual benefit benefit not only the ozone layer but you’ve benefited climate we’re now going to add into the atmosphere we’re going to use his replacement gases that have as much climate change or more than the CFC they’re called hydrofluorocarbons and so if you wanted to do some action on climate change through the Montreal Protocol you could consider the replacement with new technologies or less climate active gases rather than the gases we’re currently looking at an increase in our emissions of greenhouse gases has been warming the surface of the on it and lower atmosphere changes in temperature wind circulations and chemicals found in the atmosphere will affect the future of the ozone layer in many different ways ways there at this time still very difficult to forecast climate is going to change the stratosphere and change ozone levels because of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide so these are not ozone-depleting substances that are regulated in the Montreal Protocol initially one of our worries about there’s a whole was that climate change to increase magic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere warming the surface of the planet but cooling zone laakso it has an influence on the formation of Paula stratospheric clouds and this will delay was on recovery in the region more recently we’ve found that the ozone hole itself is interacting with the climate we are now recognizing been in fact changes in the stratosphere changes of ozone can have an effect on surface climate something that wasn’t really well recognized 1020 years ago when people started worrying about ozone depletion they were concerned about things like skin cancer primarily in the fourth race and in the last several years you know become clear that you do the ozone depletion impact very strongly the circulation the winds you know the flow in the atmosphere this is the earth the equator the North Pole this is the South Pole if you have another hole in the ozone is in there anymore then local you have a cooling now because you’re not absorbing the race and so you’re older than you would be if the ocean where there is a concept with all that cooling the winds react and a very simple and manifest way in which they reacted is that the storm tracks have been moving forward and together with that the precipitation and started freaking are all moving towards the pole wasn’t recovering with will be a major component of climate changes in the coming decades and it has to be accounted for and it seems to me that there for any discussion having to do with greenhouse gases cannot be had without at the same time discussing in recovering because we now know of these feedbacks between the ozone hole and climate and climate in ozone hole the provisions of the Montreal Protocol do allow regulation of any gases that may affect the ozone layer and because there is such widespread agreement that the protocol is a good treaty that is working and that all countries can sign up for maybe that is the way that we can go in the future watch your protocol started off with without called baby steps they took a decision and based on science that change the decision a few years later again few years later so there’s a lot of amendments and adjustments which finally became so successful there may be a lesson in that for the climate negotiations and climate positions halls the Montreal Protocol I believe this it’s a this is an opinion is a great it’s a great example of what can be accomplished if nations industry technologists and scientists all combined to work on a problem i think you’ll be incorrect to say that because the ozone hole is closing the ocean story’s finished we have half a century or more to see what was going to happen it was a consequence of the montreal protocol in fact and expect things to be both interesting scientifically but also practically challenging you know so we’ll see what happens so it seems that as a result of the Montreal Protocol the ozone hole is on its way to recovery but our atmosphere is constantly changing making it difficult to predict exactly how things will evolve but in the end i have learned we have a huge role to play because we may have the power to destroy the atmosphere but through global action we also have the ability to work together internationally to repair the damage we have read and protect the planet for generations to come member thank you very much for inviting me to be part of your event today I’m very good glad to be able to give you a video of my presentation from London my name is inaudible Ravens and I work for the environment and investigation agency and I’d like to talk to you about a new report that we have out which gives information about new trends in ods smuggling and i’m going to highlight some of the key issues that we’ve raising that report as it give you an overview of my presentation I want to talk a bit about our trade data analysis we looked at HDFC 22 trade data using the new HS customs codes and compared it between trading partners and we found that in general there is a lower-than-expected reported HDFC imports when compared to the correlating HDFC 22 exports i want to also touch on a few recent ods cases especially those ongoing CFC cases and some that highlight the use of large tanks which brings us on to some of the new challenges that I think we’re facing over the future and that will be really how we can begin to test the contents of large tanks as we see a shift in the refrigerant market towards their use and also finally i want to touch on the montreal protocol and it’s party’s ability to monitor and control ods feedstocks and how some recent information well some recent findings which shows some higher-than-expected ods feedstock emissions suggest that maybe there’s a need to overhaul the way we do things and review that so 22 getting started I’ve got here some graphs which show trade data analysis is the top graflex at China’s reported hcfc 22 exports to Singapore for 2012 and 2013 and the blue line is China’s reported exports and the red line is Singapore’s reported HDFC 22 imports from China so in theory both lines should match but as you can see chinese reported exports are much higher there about doubled singapore’s reported HDFC 22 imports the discrepancy is even greater if you look at the bottom graph which is looking at a pairing between China and Pakistan and you can see that china china has reported quite high exports to Pakistan for 2012 and 2013 between two and a half and three thousand tons where’s Pakistan’s reported imports a minimal and just before going into a discussion of these i want to highlight that these are not isolated cases of China’s top 20 HDFC 22 trading trading partners Malaysia Saudi Arabia Iran Egypt all have more than twenty percent trade average trade data discrepancies and the United Arab Emirates taiwan nigeria Vietnam q8 and Bangladesh had no HDFC 22 import trade data available at all so this is really what appears to be a snapshot of a much broader problem so generally just to confirm the key finding that we found was that China’s reported trade in HCMC 22 showed that on average reported imports are thirty-two percent lower than Chinese reported exports with its partners there are several possible explanations for this it could be a general tendency to it not report all imports by partner countries it could also be due to the new 2012 HS code which is given HDFC 22 own HS code PLEASE SUBSCRIBE THE VIDEO

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