United States Environmental Protection Agency | Wikipedia audio article


The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation
on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the
EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by
its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current
acting Administrator following the resignation of Scott Pruitt is Deputy Administrator Andrew
Wheeler. The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet
rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington,
D.C., regional offices for each of the agency’s ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The agency
conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of
maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in
consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting,
monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and the federally recognized
tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency
also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary
pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA’s employees are engineers,
scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs,
financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed
a 31% cut to the EPA’s budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter
of the agency jobs. However, this cut was not approved by Congress.
The Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority
of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they also have the
power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce.
Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry
out the approved statutes. The Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations.
A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply
it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order
to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to
be implemented. The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is overruled
or confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe
that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government
overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners.==History==Beginning in the late 1950s and through the
1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity
could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources
and Conservation Act (RCA) of 1959, in the 86th Congress. The 1962 publication of Silent
Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment
of the indiscriminate use of pesticides.In the years following, similar bills were introduced
and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress’s potential
responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of
the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, and the
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George Miller, to discuss the
need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy. In the colloquium, some
members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting
the environment.The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) was modeled on the
Resources and Conservation Act of 1959 (RCA). RCA would have established a Council on Environmental
Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, and required
the preparation of an annual environmental report.President Nixon signed NEPA into law
on January 1, 1970. The law created the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) in the Executive
Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts
be prepared for all major federal actions significantly affecting the environment. The
“detailed statement” would ultimately be referred to as an environmental impact statement (EIS). On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive
reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government
under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency. This proposal included merging antipollution
programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from
the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, and U.S. Department
of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved
the proposal. The EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, and officially opened
its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency’s first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus,
took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had a budget of
$1.4 billion and 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was primarily a technical assistance
agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress
gave the agency its regulatory authority.EPA staff recall that in the early days there
was “an enormous sense of purpose and excitement” and the expectation that “there was this agency
which was going to do something about a problem that clearly was on the minds of a lot of
people in this country,” leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate
in the mighty effort to clean up America’s environment.When EPA first began operation,
members of the private sector felt strongly that the environmental protection movement
was a passing fad. Ruckelshaus stated that he felt pressure to show a public which was
deeply skeptical about government’s effectiveness, that EPA could respond effectively to widespread
concerns about pollution.In April 1986, when the Chernobyl disaster occurred, the EPA was
tasked with identifying an impacts on the United States and keeping the public informed.
Administrator Lee Thomas assembled a cross-agency team, including personal from the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department
of Energy to monitor the situation. They held press conferences for 10 days.
The EPA also researched the implications of stratospheric ozone depletion. Under the leadership
of Administrator Lee Thomas, the EPA joined with several international organizations to
perform a risk assessment of stratospheric ozone, which helped provide motivation for
the Montreal Protocol, which was agreed to in August 1987.
In 1988, during his first presidential campaign, George H. W. Bush was vocal about environmental
issues. He appointed as his EPA administrator William K. Reilly, an environmentalist. Under
Reilly’s leadership, the EPA implemented voluntary programs and a cluster rule for
multimedia regulation. At time, the environment was increasingly being recognized as a regional
issue, which was reflected in 1990 amendment of the Clean Air Act and new approaches by
the agency.==Organization==
The EPA is led by an Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. From February
2017 to July 2018, Scott Pruitt served as the 14th Administrator. The current acting
administrator is Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler.===Offices===
Office of the Administrator (OA). As of March 2017 the office consisted of 11 divisions,
the Office of Administrative and Executive Services, Office of Children’s Health Protection,
Office of Civil Rights, Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Relations, Office of
the Executive Secretariat, Office of Homeland Security, Office of Policy, Office of Public
Affairs, Office of Public Engagement and Environmental Education, Office of Small and Disadvantaged
Business Utilization, Science Advisory Board. Office of Administration and Resources Management
(OARM) Office of Air and Radiation (OAR)
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP)
Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
(OECA) Office of Environmental Information (OEI)
Office of General Counsel (OGC) Office of Inspector General (OIG)
Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA)
Office of Research and Development (ORD) which as of March 2017 consisted of theNational
Center for Computational Toxicology, National Center for Environmental Assessment, National
Center for Environmental Research, National Exposure Research Laboratory, National Health
and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, National Homeland Security Research Center,
National Risk Management Research LaboratoryOffice of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM)which
as of March 2017 consisted of the Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation,
Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Office
of Brownfields and Land Revitalization, Office of Emergency Management, Federal Facilities
Restoration and Reuse Office.Office of Water (OW) which as of March 2017 consisted of the
Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW), Office of Science and Technology
(OST), Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) and Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
(OWOW).===Regions===Creating 10 EPA regions was an initiative
that came from President Richard Nixon. See Standard Federal Regions.
Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agency’s programs,
except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states. Region 1: responsible within the states of
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont (New England).
Region 2: responsible within the states of New Jersey and New York. It is also responsible
for the US territories of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Region 3: responsible within the states of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Region 4: responsible within the states of
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.
Region 5: responsible within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio,
and Wisconsin. Region 6: responsible within the states of
Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Region 7: responsible within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska.
Region 8: responsible within the states of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota,
Utah, and Wyoming. Region 9: responsible within the states of
Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, the territories of Guam and American Samoa, and the Navajo
Nation. Region 10: responsible within the states of
Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.Each regional office also implements programs on
Indian Tribal lands, except those programs delegated to tribal authorities.==Related legislation==
EPA has principal implementation authority for the following federal environmental laws: Clean Air Act
Clean Water Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation
and Liability Act (“Superfund”) Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
Act Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Safe Drinking Water Act Toxic Substances Control Act.There are additional
laws where EPA has a contributing role or provides assistance to other agencies. Among
these laws are: Endangered Species Act
Energy Independence and Security Act Energy Policy Act
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Food Quality Protection Act
National Environmental Policy Act Oil Pollution Act
Pollution Prevention Act.==Programs==It is worth noting that, in looking back in
2013 on the agency he helped shape from the beginning, Administrator William Ruckelshaus
observed that a danger for EPA was that air, water, waste and other programs would be unconnected,
placed in “silos,” a problem that persists more than 50 years later, albeit less so than
at the start.===EPA Safer Choice===
The EPA Safer Choice label, previously known as the Design for the Environment (DfE) label,
helps consumers and commercial buyers identify and select products with safer chemical ingredients,
without sacrificing quality or performance. When a product has the Safer Choice label,
it means that every intentionally-added ingredient in the product has been evaluated by EPA scientists.
Only the safest possible functional ingredients are allowed in products with the Safer Choice
label.===Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative
===Through the Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative
(SDSI), EPA’s Design for the Environment (DfE) recognizes environmental leaders who voluntarily
commit to the use of safer surfactants. Safer surfactants are the ones that break down quickly
to non-polluting compounds and help protect aquatic life in both fresh and salt water.
Nonylphenol ethoxylates, commonly referred to as NPEs, are an example of a surfactant
class that does not meet the definition of a safer surfactant.
The Design for the Environment, which was renamed to EPA Safer Choice in 2015, has identified
safer alternative surfactants through partnerships with industry and environmental advocates.
These safer alternatives are comparable in cost and are readily available. CleanGredients
is a source of safer surfactants.===Energy Star===
In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency.
This program came out an increased effort to collaborate with industry. At the start,
it motivated major companies to retrofit millions of square feet of building space with more
efficient lighting. As of 2006, more than 40,000 Energy Star products were available
including major appliances, office equipment, lighting, home electronics, and more. In addition,
the label can also be found on new homes and commercial and industrial buildings. In 2006,
about 12 percent of new housing in the United States was labeled Energy Star.The EPA estimates
it saved about $14 billion in energy costs in 2006 alone. The Energy Star program has
helped spread the use of LED traffic lights, efficient fluorescent lighting, power management
systems for office equipment, and low standby energy use.===Smart Growth===
EPA’s Smart Growth Program, which began in 1998, is to help communities improve their
development practices and get the type of development they want. Together with local,
state, and national experts, EPA encourages development strategies that protect human
health and the environment, create economic opportunities, and provide attractive and
affordable neighborhoods for people of all income levels.===Pesticides===
EPA administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much
older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States.===Fuel economy===
The testing system was originally developed in 1972 and used driving cycles designed to
simulate driving during rush-hour in Los Angeles during that era. Until 1984 the EPA reported
the exact fuel economy figures calculated from the test. In 1984, the EPA began adjusting
city (aka Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule or UDDS) results downward by 10% and highway
(aka HighWay Fuel Economy Test or HWFET) results by 22% to compensate for changes in driving
conditions since 1972, and to better correlate the EPA test results with real-world driving.
In 1996, the EPA proposed updating the Federal Testing Procedures to add a new higher-speed
test (US06) and an air-conditioner-on test (SC03) to further improve the correlation
of fuel economy and emission estimates with real-world reports. In December 2006 the updated
testing methodology was finalized to be implemented in model year 2008 vehicles and set the precedent
of a 12-year review cycle for the test procedures.In February 2005, EPA launched a program called
“Your MPG” that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on
the EPA’s fuel economy website and compare them with others and with the original EPA
test results.The EPA conducts fuel economy tests on very few vehicles. “Just 18 of the
EPA’s 17,000 employees work in the automobile-testing department in Ann Arbor, Michigan, examining
200 to 250 vehicles a year, or roughly 15 percent of new models. As to that other 85
percent, the EPA takes automakers at their word—without any testing-accepting submitted
results as accurate.” Two-thirds of the vehicles the EPA tests themselves are randomly selected
and the remaining third is tested for specific reasons.
Although originally created as a reference point for fossil-fueled vehicles, driving
cycles have been used for estimating how many miles an electric vehicle will get on a single
charge.===Oil spill prevention program===
EPA’s oil spill prevention program includes the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure
(SPCC) and the Facility Response Plan (FRP) rules. The SPCC Rule applies to all facilities
that store, handle, process, gather, transfer, refine, distribute, use or consume oil or
oil products. Oil products includes petroleum and non-petroleum oils as well as: animal
fats, oils and greases; fish and marine mammal oils; and vegetable oils. It mandates a written
plan for facilities that store more than 1,320 gallons of fuel above ground or more than
42,000 gallons below-ground, and which might discharge to navigable waters (as defined
in the Clean Water Act) or adjoining shorelines. Secondary spill containment is mandated at
oil storage facilities and oil release containment is required at oil development sites.===Toxics Release Inventory===
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a resource for learning about toxic chemical releases
and pollution prevention activities reported by industrial and federal facilities. TRI
data support informed decision-making by communities, government agencies, companies, and others.===WaterSense===
WaterSense is an EPA program launched in June 2006 to encourage water efficiency in the
United States through the use of a special label on consumer products. Products include
high-efficiency toilets (HETs), bathroom sink faucets (and accessories), and irrigation
equipment. WaterSense is a voluntary program, with EPA developing specifications for water-efficient
products through a public process and product testing by independent laboratories.===Underground Storage Tanks Program===
EPA regulates underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum and hazardous chemicals
under Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. This program was launched in 1985 and
covers about 553,000 active USTs. Since 1984, 1.8 million USTs have been closed in compliance
with regulations. 38 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico manage UST programs
with EPA authorization. When the program began EPA had only 90 staff to develop a system
to regulate more than 2 million tanks and work with 750,000 owners and operators. Administrator
Lee Thomas told the program’s new manager, Ron Brand, that it would have to be done differently
that EPA’s traditional approach. This program therefore behaves differently than other EPA
offices, focusing much more on local operations.===Drinking water===
EPA ensures safe drinking water for the public, by setting standards for more than 160,000
public water systems nationwide. EPA oversees states, local governments and water suppliers
to enforce the standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The program includes regulation
of injection wells in order to protect underground sources of drinking water. Select readings
of amounts of certain contaminants in drinking water, precipitation, and surface water, in
addition to milk and air, are reported on EPA’s Rad Net web site in a section entitled
Envirofacts. Despite mandatory reporting certain readings
exceeding EPA MCL levels may be deleted or not included. In 2013, an EPA draft revision
relaxed regulations for radiation exposure through drinking water, stating that current
standards are impractical to enforce. The EPA recommended that intervention was not
necessary until drinking water was contaminated with radioactive iodine 131 at a concentration
of 81,000 picocuries per liter (the limit for short term exposure set by the International
Atomic Energy Agency), which was 27,000 times the prior EPA limit of 3 picocuries per liter
for long term exposure.===National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System===The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit program addresses water pollution by regulating point sources which
discharge to US waters. Created in 1972 by the Clean Water Act, the NPDES permit program
authorizes state governments to perform its many permitting, administrative, and enforcement
aspects. As of 2018, EPA has approved 47 states to administer all or portions of the permit
program. EPA regional offices manage the program in the remaining areas of the country. The
Water Quality Act of 1987 extended NPDES permit coverage to industrial stormwater dischargers
and municipal separate storm sewer systems.===Radiation protection===
EPA has the following seven project groups to protect the public from radiation.
Radioactive Waste Management Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs
Protective Action Guides And Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents: EPA developed
a manual as guideline for local and state governments to protect the public from a nuclear
accident, the 2017 version being a 15-year update.
EPA’s Role in Emergency Response – Special Teams
Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) Program
Radiation Standards for Air and Drinking Water Programs
Federal Guidance for Radiation Protection===Tools for Schools===
EPA’s Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program helps schools to maintain a healthy
environment and reduce exposures to indoor environmental contaminants. It helps school
personnel identify, solve, and prevent indoor air quality problems in the school environment.
Through the use of a multi-step management plan and checklists for the entire building,
schools can lower their students’ and staff’s risk of exposure to asthma triggers.===Environmental education===
The National Environmental Education Act of 1990 requires EPA to provide national leadership
to increase environmental literacy. EPA established the Office of Environmental Education to implement
this program.===Clean School Bus USA===
Clean School Bus USA is a national partnership to reduce children’s exposure to diesel exhaust
by eliminating unnecessary school bus idling, installing effective emission control systems
on newer buses and replacing the oldest buses in the fleet with newer ones. Its goal is
to reduce both children’s exposure to diesel exhaust and the amount of air pollution created
by diesel school buses.===33/50 Program (Past)===
In 1991 under Administrator William Reilly, the EPA implemented its voluntary 33/50 program.
This was designed to encourage, recognize, and celebrate companies that voluntarily found
ways to prevent and reduce pollution in their operations.===Environmental justice===
The EPA has been criticized for its lack of progress towards environmental justice. Administrator
Christine Todd Whitman was criticized for her changes to President Bill Clinton’s Executive
Order 12898 during 2001, removing the requirements for government agencies to take the poor and
minority populations into special consideration when making changes to environmental legislation,
and therefore defeating the spirit of the Executive Order. In a March 2004 report, the
inspector general of the agency concluded that the EPA “has not developed a clear vision
or a comprehensive strategic plan, and has not established values, goals, expectations,
and performance measurements” for environmental justice in its daily operations. Another report
in September 2006 found the agency still had failed to review the success of its programs,
policies and activities towards environmental justice. Studies have also found that poor
and minority populations were underserved by the EPA’s Superfund program, and that this
situation was worsening.====Barriers to enforcing environmental justice
====Many environmental justice issues are local,
and therefore difficult to address by a federal agency, such as the EPA. Without strong media
attention, political interest, or ‘crisis’ status, local issues are less likely to be
addressed at the federal level compared to larger, well publicized incidents.
Conflicting political powers in successive administrations: The White House maintains
direct control over the EPA, and its enforcements are subject to the political agenda of who
is in power. Republicans and Democrats differ in their approaches to environmental justice.
While President Bill Clinton signed the executive order 12898, the Bush administration did not
develop a clear plan or establish goals for integrating environmental justice into everyday
practices, affecting the motivation for environmental enforcement.The EPA is responsible for preventing
and detecting environmental crimes, informing the public of environmental enforcement, and
setting and monitoring standards of air pollution, water pollution, hazardous wastes and chemicals.
“It is difficult to construct a specific mission statement given its wide range of responsibilities.”
It is impossible to address every environmental crime adequately or efficiently if there is
no specific mission statement to refer to. The EPA answers to various groups, competes
for resources, and confronts a wide array of harms to the environment. All of these
present challenges, including a lack of resources, its self-policing policy, and a broadly defined
legislation that creates too much discretion for EPA officers.The EPA “does not have the
authority or resources to address injustices without an increase in federal mandates” requiring
private industries to consider the environmental ramifications of their activities.==Research vessel, 2004–2013==In March 2004, the U.S. Navy transferred USNS
Bold (T-AGOS-12), a Stalwart class ocean surveillance ship, to the EPA. The ship had been used in
anti-submarine operations during the Cold War, was equipped with sidescan sonar, underwater
video, water and sediment sampling instruments used in study of ocean and coastline. One
of the major missions of the Bold was to monitor for ecological impact sites where materials
were dumped from dredging operations in U.S. ports. In 2013, the General Services Administration
sold the Bold to Seattle Central Community College (SCCC), which demonstrated in a competition
that they would put it to the highest and best purpose, at a nominal cost of $5,000.==Advance identification==
Advance identification, or ADID, is a planning process used by the EPA to identify wetlands
and other bodies of water and their respective suitability for the discharge of dredged and
fill material. The EPA conducts the process in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers and local states or Native American Tribes. As of February 1993, 38 ADID projects
had been completed and 33 were ongoing.==Freedom of Information Act processing performance
==In the latest Center for Effective Government
analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act FOIA requests,
published in 2015 (using 2012 and 2013 data, the most recent years available), the EPA
earned a D by scoring 67 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory
overall grade.==Controversies (1983–present)=====Fiscal mismanagement, 1983===
In 1982 Congress charged that the EPA had mishandled the $1.6 billion program to clean
up hazardous waste dumps Superfund and demanded records from EPA director Anne M. Gorsuch.
She refused and became the first agency director in U.S. history to be cited for contempt of
Congress. The EPA turned the documents over to Congress several months later, after the
White House abandoned its court claim that the documents could not be subpoenaed by Congress
because they were covered by executive privilege. At that point, Gorsuch resigned her post,
citing pressures caused by the media and the congressional investigation. Critics charged
that the EPA was in a shambles at that time. When Lee Thomas came to the agency in 1983
as Acting Assistant Administrator of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, shortly
before Gorsuch’s resignation, six congressional committees were investigating the Superfund
program. There were also two FBI agents performing an investigation for the Justice Department
into possible destruction of documents. Gorsuch, appointed by Ronald Reagan, resigned
under fire in 1983. Gorsuch based her administration of the EPA on the New Federalism approach
of downsizing federal agencies by delegating their functions and services to the individual
states. She believed that the EPA was over-regulating business and that the agency was too large
and not cost-effective. During her 22 months as agency head, she cut the budget of the
EPA by 22%, reduced the number of cases filed against polluters, relaxed Clean Air Act regulations,
and facilitated the spraying of restricted-use pesticides. She cut the total number of agency
employees, and hired staff from the industries they were supposed to be regulating. Environmentalists
contended that her policies were designed to placate polluters, and accused her of trying
to dismantle the agency.===Political pressure and scientific integrity,
2001–present===In April 2008, the Union of Concerned Scientists
said that more than half of the nearly 1,600 EPA staff scientists who responded online
to a detailed questionnaire reported they had experienced incidents of political interference
in their work. The survey included chemists, toxicologists, engineers, geologists and experts
in other fields of science. About 40% of the scientists reported that the interference
had been more prevalent in the last five years than in previous years. The highest number
of complaints came from scientists who were involved in determining the risks of cancer
by chemicals used in food and other aspects of everyday life.EPA research has also been
suppressed by career managers. Supervisors at EPA’s National Center for Environmental
Assessment required several paragraphs to be deleted from a peer-reviewed journal article
about EPA’s integrated risk information system, which led two co-authors to have their names
removed from the publication, and the corresponding author, Ching-Hung Hsu, to leave EPA “because
of the draconian restrictions placed on publishing”. EPA subjects employees who author scientific
papers to prior restraint, even if those papers are written on personal time.EPA employees
have reported difficulty in conducting and reporting the results of studies on hydraulic
fracturing due to industry and governmental pressure, and are concerned about the censorship
of environmental reports.In 2015, the Government Accountability Office stated that the EPA
violated federal law with covert propaganda on their social media platforms. The social
media messaging that was used promoted materials supporting the Waters of the United States
rule, including materials that were designed to oppose legislative efforts to limit or
block the rule.In February 2017, U.S. Representative Matt Gaetz (R-Fla.) sponsored H.R. 861, a
bill to abolish the EPA by 2018. According to Gaetz, “The American people are drowning
in rules and regulation promulgated by unelected bureaucrats. And the Environmental Protection
Agency has become an extraordinary offender.” The bill was co-sponsored by Thomas Massie
(R-Ky.), Steven Palazzo (R-Ms.) and Barry Loudermilk (R-Ga.).===Fuel economy, 2005–2010===
In July 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce
less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day
before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed
to it, but the EPA delayed its release at the last minute.In 2007, the state of California
sued the EPA for its refusal to allow California and 16 other states to raise fuel economy
standards for new cars. EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson claimed that the EPA was
working on its own standards, but the move has been widely considered an attempt to shield
the auto industry from environmental regulation by setting lower standards at the federal
level, which would then preempt state laws. California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger,
along with governors from 13 other states, stated that the EPA’s actions ignored federal
law, and that existing California standards (adopted by many states in addition to California)
were almost twice as effective as the proposed federal standards. It was reported that Stephen
Johnson ignored his own staff in making this decision.After the federal government had
bailed out General Motors and Chrysler in the Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010,
the 2010 Chevrolet Equinox was released with an EPA fuel economy rating abnormally higher
than its competitors. Independent road tests found that the vehicle did not out-perform
its competitors, which had much lower fuel economy ratings. Later road tests found better,
but inconclusive, results.===Mercury emissions, 2005===
In March 2005, nine states (California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont) sued the EPA. The EPA’s Inspector General
had determined that the EPA’s regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean
Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees. The EPA had suppressed
a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury
controls. The suit alleged that the EPA’s rule exempting coal-fired power plants from
“maximum available control technology” was illegal, and additionally charged that the
EPA’s system of cap-and-trade to lower average mercury levels would allow power plants to
forego reducing mercury emissions, which they objected would lead to dangerous local hotspots
of mercury contamination even if average levels declined. Several states also began to enact
their own mercury emission regulations. Illinois’s proposed rule would have reduced mercury emissions
from power plants by an average of 90% by 2009. In 2008—by which point a total of
fourteen states had joined the suit—the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of
Columbia ruled that the EPA regulations violated the Clean Air Act.In response, EPA announced
plans to propose such standards to replace the vacated Clean Air Mercury Rule, and did
so on March 16, 2011.===Climate change, 2007–2017===In December 2007, EPA Administrator Stephen
L. Johnson approved a draft of a document that declared that climate change imperiled
the public welfare—a decision that would trigger the first national mandatory global-warming
regulations. Associate Deputy Administrator Jason Burnett e-mailed the draft to the White
House. White House aides—who had long resisted mandatory regulations as a way to address
climate change—knew the gist of what Johnson’s finding would be, Burnett said. They also
knew that once they opened the attachment, it would become a public record, making it
controversial and difficult to rescind. So they did not open it; rather, they called
Johnson and asked him to take back the draft. Johnson rescinded the draft; in July 2008,
he issued a new version which did not state that global warming was danger to public welfare.
Burnett resigned in protest.A $3 million mapping study on sea level rise was suppressed by
EPA management during both the Bush and Obama Administrations, and managers changed a key
interagency report to reflect the removal of the maps.On April 28, 2017, multiple climate
change subdomains at EPA.gov began redirecting to a notice stating “this page is being updated.”
The EPA issued a statement announcing the overhaul of its website to “reflect the agency’s
new direction under President Donald Trump and Administrator Scott Pruitt.” The removed
EPA climate change domains included extensive information on the EPA’s work to mitigate
climate change, as well as details of data collection efforts and indicators for climate
change.===Gold King Mine waste water spill, 2015
===In August 2015, the 2015 Gold King Mine waste
water spill occurred when EPA contractors examined the level of pollutants such as lead
and arsenic in a Colorado mine, and accidentally released over three million gallons of waste
water into Cement Creek and the Animas River.===Collusion with Monsanto chemical company
===In 2015, the International Agency for Research
on Cancer (IARC), a branch of the World Health Organization, cited research linking glyphosate,
an ingredient of the weed killer Roundup manufactured by the chemical company Monsanto, to non-Hodgkin’s
lymphoma. In March 2017, the presiding judge in a litigation brought about by people who
claim to have developed glyphosate-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma opened Monsanto emails
and other documents related to the case, including email exchanges between the company and federal
regulators. According to an article in the New York Times, the “records suggested that
Monsanto had ghostwritten research that was later attributed to academics and indicated
that a senior official at the Environmental Protection Agency had worked to quash a review
of Roundup’s main ingredient, glyphosate, that was to have been conducted by the United
States Department of Health and Human Services.” The records show that Monsanto was able to
prepare “a public relations assault” on the finding after they were alerted to the determination
by Jess Rowland, the head of the EPA’s cancer assessment review committee at that time,
months in advance. Emails also showed that Rowland “had promised to beat back an effort
by the Department of Health and Human Services to conduct its own review.”===Chief Scott Pruitt, 2017===
On February 17, 2017, Scott Pruitt was selected Administrator of the EPA by president Donald
Trump. This was a seemingly controversial move, as Pruitt had spent most of his career
countering environmental policy. He did not have previous experience in the field and
had received financial support from the fossil fuel industry.Pruitt resigned from the position
on July 5, 2018, citing “unrelenting attacks” due to ongoing ethics controversies.==See also==
Environmental policy of the Donald Trump administration AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission
Factors Brownfield land
Environmental Technology Verification Program EPA Methods
Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)
Green Sticker programs MyEnvironment
Renewable energy Stormwater
Volkswagen diesel scandal USA.gov
USAFacts==Further reading==
EPA Alumni Association, “Protecting the Environment, A Half Century of Progress” – an overview
of EPA’s environmental protection efforts over 50 years
EPA Alumni Association individual Half Century of Progress reports for air, water, pesticides,
drinking water, waste management, Superfund, and toxic substances==
References====External links==
Official website Environmental Protection Agency in the Federal
Register

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